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Another Marrano, Isaac Abrabael, controlled Spanish finances at the time. In December , a special commission for dealing with counter-revolutionaries was set up in Petrograd.

The Inquisition encouraged children to betray their "heretical" parents and married couples to hand each other in. Each informer was paid four silver marks.

The Soviet officials encouraged a similar type of betrayal. There are still more similarities between institutions of the Bolsheviks, the Roman Catholic Church, and the freemasons.

High church figures had commissars bearing letters authorising them to exercise the authority of their masters. Similar officials were used in connection with the so-called French revolution and also by the Bolsheviks.

The spies used by the church and the Inquisition were called the Militia of Christ; the law-enforcement and reconnaissance organs of the communist dictators were called the People's Militia.

The Soviet system had a hierarchy of councils, or Soviets as they were known, of which only the highest, the Supreme Soviet, had the right of pardon - a system reminiscent of the Judaic kahal.

Both the communists and the Christians have practised a dreadful barbarism against opponents. After the crusaders reached the river Carnascio on the 23rd of March , they imprisoned the leader of the Brothers of the Apostle, Fra Dolcino, after first destroying his army of a thousand men.

He was horribly tortured and then executed on June 1st, For an entire day he was paraded through the streets of Vercelli in a wagon, whilst pieces of his body were ripped off with a pair of red-hot tongs.

His shoulders apparently shuddered a little when they tore off his nose, but he had kept silent the rest of the time.

Both the Christians and the communists have knowingly employed criminals. In , Pope Urban II Clermonti released murderers, thieves and other criminals so that they might take part in the crusade in On their way through Europe, these villains plundered all they could.

The Bolshevik leader Leon Trotsky released criminals to terrorise the population. Mao Zedong did the same. The Bolsheviks had their own ten commandments and, like the church, they also mocked their opponents.

The totalitarianism of the church belongs to the past but if the church should ever regain its former power, its atrocities would probably be repeated.

The Jesuit historian Luigi Ciccutini believed in that the church had the divine right to judge and intervene in any matter whatsoever. He claims that the church was justified in burning Filippo Giordano Bruno at the stake in February A similar danger awaits us if the communists with the help of the financial elite should ever grow strong again.

After all their atrocities, we should ignore their pretty slogans. One can characterise both Christianity and communism as extremely anti-cultural ideologies, both of which persecuted leading cultural figures.

Both have impeded the free development of science. Due to the reactionary attitude of the church, many truths, scientific, religious and esoteric, have still not been accepted.

One of the worst crimes of Christianity was the arson ordered by the patriarch Theophilus, which led to the complete destruction of the ancient world's largest library in the Serapis temple of Alexandria in A.

The root of this crime was the church's hatred and intolerance of knowledge springing from classical pagan Greco-Roman culture.

Another example is the murder of the female philosopher and mathematician Hypatia in Alexandria in A. They even prohibited the conductor's profession because "the orchestras could play perfectly well without conductors".

Later, seeing that their orchestras could not manage without their leaders, the communists had to change their tune.

Pope Leo X believed it right and proper to use the "wonderful fairy tale about Jesus Christ which has given us so many advantages", as he stood upon the festive board and raised his glass.

Moses Hess, one of the most important founders of communist ideology, believed communism to be a perfect lie to spread destruction with.

It is regrettable that ideologies whose fundamental principle is intolerance still halt moral development. Two Swedish bishops, Gottfrid Billing in Vasteras, , and Bo Giertz in Gothenburg, , believed that it would be better to crush a child's head with a rock than not to baptise it Henry T.

Laurency, "Livskunskap Fyra", Skovde, , p. Even today, Protestant and Catholic Christians continue to brutally terrorise and murder each other in Northern Ireland.

Towards the end of their reign, under Mikhail Gorbachev, the communist leaders in Russia were prepared to ask the Russian Eastern Orthodox Church for help in order to preserve their power.

However, what is created by violence cannot long survive. Despite the fact that none were allowed to leave the Soviet communist party without retribution, it still collapsed when thousands of people began to leave this criminal institution in In August , after the Communist party attempted to overthrow Gorbachev's reforms, the Russian president Boris Yeltsin made the communist party illegal, just as the National Socialist Nazi Party was outlawed after the Second World War.

Life itself forced them to repudiate their primitive and unreal dialectical materialism as an infallible dogma, to part with the "holy" book "Das Kapital", and the "prophets" - Lenin, Mao, and other mass-murderers.

These worshippers of violence still have their "holy shrine" - Lenin's Mausoleum - but sooner or later they will come to realise that their Messiah, Marx, is as dead as his ism.

But the most troubling and challenging question still remains - will we be able to perceive the new incarnations of this evil? They had decided to found a secret order to undermine the social system, at first called the Orden der Perfektibilisten The Order of Perfectibilists.

Weishaupt had been working on the plans for this order ever since Among the three guests were two of Weishaupt's students: Prince Anton von Massenhausen, who had helped work out the rules of the Order, and Franz Xaver Zwack, only registered as a member on the 22nd of February There was also another man who later went under the pseudonym Tiberius, though nothing more is known about him.

The historical Porcius Cato had demanded the total destruction of the city-state of Carthago. Mirabeau was called Arcesilas, but in his alias became Leonidas Nesta H.

Mirabeau was a famous French orator who had contracted enormous debts. Weishaupt came into contact with Mirabeau through certain Jewish bankers.

Mirabeau was blackmailed into joining the Illuminati. Cities and areas that were important to the Illuminati were given ancient names: With the help of confiscated documents, it can be seen that the Illuminati used the Persian calendar, where October was called Meharmeh, November Abenmeh, December Adarmeh, January Dimeh, etc.

The lawyer Franz X. Zwack received his doctor's degree and became adviser to Count Salm in Landshut where a great deal of the Illuminati's archives was brought.

Not long afterwards, in , the Order was renamed Orden der Illuminaten. Their primary watchword was: But first Adam Weishaupt wanted a German unification.

They intended to call themselves "Bienenorden" Order of Bees but they kept in "Orden der Illuminaten" in the end.

The Illuminati "The Illuminated Ones" eventually became a powerful und despotic organization in Bavaria. The Order was founded on approximately the same principles as the Jesuit Order.

Adam Weishaupt had worked five years to develop a system, which suited him. The Order was divided into three classes the Jesuits had four.

The first class was for novices and the lesser illuminated Minerval , the second for freemasons including the Scottish Knights , and the third, the mystery class, was comprised of priests, regents, magicians and a king the Jesuits had a general.

In , the Alumbrado The Enlightened movement was founded by Spanish Marranos baptised Jews who secretly kept their Talmudic faith and a similar organization was founded in France in - "Guerients" who changed their name to Illuminati in The Spanish authorities attempted to stop the Alumbrado movement as early as when Ignatius Loyola was temporarily arrested for his activities with the Illuminati.

Loyola Inigo Lopez de Regalde , who was of Jewish blood, was born in the s. In , he founded his own order - the Jesuits - taking out a loan for the purpose.

The Pope acknowledged the Jesuit Order on the 5th of April Benjamin Disraeli, author and prime minister of Great Britain in , and , himself a Jew, wrote in his book "Coningsby" London, that the first Jesuits were Jews.

In this new order, all members were under Loyola's surveillance. Kolmer initiated Weishaupt into the secrets of Osiris magic, the Cabbala and the Alumbrado movement.

Nesta Webster assumed that he had been known in Italy as Altotas, Cagliostro's master. Kolmer's occult knowledge made a deep impression on Weishaupt, who later chose the Egyptian pyramid as the Illuminati's symbol of power, probably using an illustration from the book "Pyramidography" by Jean Greaves, professor of astronomy at Oxford.

One year earlier , Weishaupt had been given a post as lecturer in canon law at the University of Ingolstadt. He later received his doctor's degree and in , at the age of 25, became a professor at the same university.

During a short period he even held the post of principal. In , the university moved to Landshut and from there to Munich in It was no coincidence that the Order of the Illuminati was founded on the first of May.

Among the Cabbalist Jews, this date, 15 1. According to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the first of May - the day following Walpurgis Night - is when the dark mystical forces are celebrated.

At this time a young Jew named Mayer Amschel born February 23rd, was being tutored to become a rabbi. Amschel lived with his parents in the Jewish ghetto of Frankfurt am Main.

He later took the name Rothschild. It was Mayer Amschel Rothschild who convinced Weishaupt to wholly accept the Frankist Cabbalist doctrine and who afterwards financed the Illuminati.

Rothschild had given Weishaupt the task of reestablishing the old Alumbrado movement for the Cabbalist Jews. Theoretical Cabbala embraces only secret teachings about God and nature.

But practical Cabbala such as Frankism attempts to affect earthly matters. It involves the use of amulets and magic numbers as well as the conjuring of evil spirits.

Both the Talmud and Midrash contain Cabbalist information. Jakob Frank was the most frightening phenomenon in Jewish history, according to the Jewish professor Gershom G.

His actions were totally immoral. The goal of the Frankists was to work in secret to establish Jewish world supremacy.

He officially converted to Catholicism but this was just camouflage. Jakob Frank was jailed in for continuing to teach the Cabbala Zohar and for practising secret Jewish rituals.

In , the Russians attacked the region of Poland where Frank was held prisoner. He was released and moved to Offenbach near Frankfurt am Main in Germany where he began to lead a luxurious and wild life.

His deeds were evil, his personality nefarious. This information comes from Professor Gershom G. Jakob Frank summed up his doctrine in his book "The Words of the Lord".

He asserted that the creator God was not the same as the one who had revealed himself to the Israelites. He believed God was evil. Frank proclaimed himself as the true Messiah.

He vowed not to tell the truth, rejected every moral law, and declared that the only way to a new society was through the total destruction of the present civilisation.

Murder, rape, incest and the drinking of blood were perfectly acceptable actions and necessary rituals. Frank was one of those refractory Jews who worshipped devils.

The extremist Jews were particularly fond of a devil called Sammael. Pouget de Saint Andres, "Les auteurs caches de la revolution francaise", p.

His father was a professor at the University of Ingolstadt. He was educated in a Jesuit monastery and studied law, literature, and atheist philosophy.

In , the twenty-five-year-old Weishaupt left the Jesuit Order. This may have been because he had developed his independent ideology, but the subsequent dissolution of the Jesuit Order in by Pope Clement XIV may also have been a factor.

In , however, the Jesuit Order was re-established and through new infiltrations became more powerful than ever before. In , Professor Weishaupt became a member of the lodge Theodor zum guten Rat within eclectic freemasonry.

Later, Weishaupt was to use this foothold in Munich to allow his Illuminati to infiltrate all the other Masonic lodges, due to the fact that he wielded great influence over the lodge through its Grand Master, Professor Franz Benedict Xaver von Baader, who had joined the Illuminati.

It was Baron Adolf von Knigge born 16th October in Bredenbeck, died 6th May in Bremen , Adam Weishaupt's closest collaborator, who later helped him to gain entrance to different Masonic organizations.

The year-old Knigge joined the Illuminati in Frankfurt in under the alias of Philo the original Philo was a Jewish scholar.

The Illuminati began to work especially actively after the entrance of Adolf von Knigge in July Baron von Knigge also wrote the book "Concerning Association with People".

He brought together many powerful men. It was largely thanks to Philo that the organization spread through the whole of Germany. Both financial and sexual favours were used to gain control of people in high places.

Important financiers joined the organization: Speyer, Schuster, Stern and others. The Jews had therefore gained a very powerful position.

Their base of operations was Frankfurt am Main. In Hamburg, a powerful Jewish-Cabbalist family grew forth.

Their name was Samuel Moses Warburg and they also joined this conspiracy of world supremacy. He encouraged his closest collaborators to use the lie as a tool and to avoid giving the public any true explanations.

The leaders of the Illuminati saw to it that their most dangerous opponents and others who might be a threat to the secrets of the Order were poisoned.

Winrod, "Adam Weishaupt - a Human Devil". Weishaupt got his wife's sister pregnant and, not being able to pay 50 marks for an illegal operation, he unsuccessfully tried to bring about an abortion by the use of drugs.

A boy was born on the 30th of January In , the Illuminati began to co-operate with all the Masonic lodges especially the Grand Orient in order to infiltrate them.

When Weishaupt became a member of the Grand Orient, the lodge was backed financially by Mayer Amschel Rothschild , according to the British historian Nesta Webster.

Bernard Lazar, a well-known Jewish author, wrote in his "L'Antisemitisme", in , that exclusively Cabbalist Jews surrounded Weishaupt. Confiscated documents show that of 39 Illuminati holding lesser leading positions, 17 were Jews i.

The higher one looked in ranks, the larger was the percentage of Jews. Even the fact that the Illuminati headquarters in Ingolstadt were later converted into a synagogue was symbolic of this conspiracy.

Lazar stated that all these Jews became the agents of revolution because they had "revolutionary souls". La Vieille France, 31st of March, All of the initiated had taken a vow "to eternal silence and undeviating loyalty and total submission to the Order".

Each member had to promise:. Do not hope to flee or to find a place to hide. Wherever you are, shame, contempt and the wrath of the brothers shall pursue and torment you to your innermost entrails.

Most members were led to believe that the lower degrees of mystery they had reached were the highest. Few members had been informed about the true purpose of the Order.

The Illuminati's codex was presented in Masonic terms and prescribed lies, treachery, violence, torture and murder in order to reach all its goals.

Many members believed themselves to be working for an improvement of the world. They never guessed that Weishaupt's true purpose was to establish Novus Ordo Seclorum, a global program for world domination.

The Protestant princes and rulers in Germany were well disposed to Weishaupt's official plan to destroy the Catholic Church and they sought membership in his Order.

Through these men Weishaupt gained control over the Masonic Orders, into which he and his other Jewish cronies were initiated in To prevent the rulers from understanding the true aims of the Illuminati, he forestalled their contact with the higher degrees.

During the year following its founding, the Order was spread exclusively through southern Bavaria. Officially, the Illuminati were supposed to spread virtue and wisdom, which was to subdue evil and stupidity.

They wanted to make great discoveries in all branches of science. The Illuminati were to be cultivated into noble, eminent people, also according to "Guidance for Freemasons".

In time, the following men joined the Illuminati: Adam Weishaupt began to work especially closely with the Jewish Masonic leader Moses Mendelssohn Mendelssohn became, so to speak, Weishaupt's invisible guide.

Moses Mendelssohn was officially known by the Jews as a poor writer who became one of Germany's fore-most philosophers during the "age of enlightenment".

He called himself a philosopher and a cultural personality. Officially, Mendelssohn's aim was to "modernise" Judaism so that the public might accept the Jews when they ostensibly gave up Talmudism and "assimilated" to the western culture.

The Illuminatus Mirabeau wrote a book in about Moses Mendelssohn's political "reforms", to spread even more fantastical myths about him.

In secret, however, Mendelssohn encouraged the Jews to faithfully keep to the beliefs of their fathers.

He led the Illuminati in Berlin. From on, the resistance to Adam Weishaupt's movement started to grow. The first official attack on the Illuminati was made in , years ago.

A rejected candidate, the bookseller Johann Baptist Strobl from Munich, was the first to raise the alarm. Weishaupt immediately declared that the man was an uninformed slanderer, rough in manners and speech.

But others came after Strobl: Eventually, several members left: Zaupser and professors Grunberg, Renner and Cosandey from Munich.

On the 1st July , even von Knigge gave up all his responsibilities within the Order due to a conflict with Weishaupt. The latter, though he totally accepted Philo's von Knigge's new, polished plan of reforms, still wanted to make additions and changes here and there.

Philo was later to return. Strobl's company began publishing several polemical pieces aimed at the Illuminati. It is sufficient to mention: These publications worked with planned effect.

When a more conservative and patriotic regent, Duke Charles Phillipp Theodore , reached power in Bavaria, he issued a ban on secret societies on 22 June The Illuminati and the freemasons closed their lodges.

The freemasons sought to defend themselves publicly. The Illuminati even offered to present all their papers and allow themselves to be subjected to public trial but nothing helped.

On the 11 February , Weishaupt was discharged and forbidden to live in Ingolstadt and Munich. At the same time, the university was informed that Weishaupt would be arrested.

On 16 February, he went underground and was hidden by his Illuminati brother Joseph Martin, who worked as a locksmith.

A few days later he fled from Ingolstadt to Nuremberg dressed in the working clothes of a craftsman. He stayed in Nuremberg a short while and then travelled on to the free city of Regensburg where he continued his activities, but then a stroke of fate occurred that put the police on the Illuminati's tracks.

During the inquiry, more and more terrible evidence against the Illuminati appeared, but they continued their activities despite the ban. Therefore, on March 2nd , a further decree was issued which made possible the confiscation of the Illuminati's assets.

On 20 July , the courier of the Illuminati Jakob Lanz who worked as a priest was hit by lightning in Regensburg and died.

Weishaupt was together with him. Lanz intended to travel on to Berlin and Silesia and received his last instructions from Weishaupt before he died.

He had sewn in a list of Illuminati and some compromising papers in his priest's robe. Weishaupt did not know about this and became the victim of his own conspiracy.

The local police found other important documents at Lanz' house, including detailed instructions for the planned French revolution.

Everything was handed over to the Bavarian government and on the 4th August a new ban on secret societies was issued. On 31 August, an order to arrest Weishaupt was issued.

A price was put on Adam Weishaupt's head in Bavaria. Weishaupt stayed in Gotha for the rest of his life. He died on the 18th November A bust of him stands on display in the Germanisches Museum in Nuremberg.

The police began to look for known members of the Order. The Illuminati had managed to infiltrate many important posts in society.

For this reason the police investigation was very slow. The raid on Zwack's house, which had a direct link to the secret Illuminati documents found at Lanz' house, was only made one year and two months after Lanz was struck by lightning, on 11 and 12 October In the following year Baron Bassus' Hannibal's castle in Sandersdorf was also searched and the police confiscated even more papers concerning the Illuminati's conspiracy against the whole world.

In these documents, which I carefully studied in the summer of in the Ingolstadt archives, plans for a global revolution were laid out and these papers clearly stated that this destructive operation was to be the work of secret societies.

Several important men in Ingolstadt and Bavaria lost their posts, some were even imprisoned or expelled from the country - but some of those involved were so powerful that they were spared retribution.

The freemasons did not believe they were given a fair trial, as no defence was permitted. In the autumn of , the Elector Karl Theodor demanded that the Illuminati cease their activities.

After a lengthy inquiry, the Elector ordered two works containing confiscated secret documents to be printed under the titles: These books were sent to the governments in Paris, London and St.

Petersburg, but were not taken seriously until it was too late. Johann Baptist Strobl also printed a new collection of documents concerning the Illuminati in According to "Guidance for Freemasons", Weishaupt, von Knigge, Bode and the other "most distinguished Illuminati" were noble-minded, honest and well-intentioned men who aspired towards goodness and justice.

Some truly lofty cultural personalities allowed themselves to be fooled by the skillful Illuminati propaganda. After the death of the Elector, Zwack returned to Bavaria, where he was reinstated as a civil servant.

Von Knigge travelled to Bremen, where he died as a British officer on 6 May Several other members were dismissed from their posts. Even the great poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe became a freemason in and joined the Illuminati somewhat later in the s.

His alias within the Order was Abaris. But eventually he was able to see through their deception. The Illuminatus Goethe wrote to Bode, a fellow member, on the 22nd June It is comprehensible to me or any other enlightened person if smoke sometimes rises from a crack or if strange voices are heard The great poet and playwright Friedrich von Schiller moved to Mannheim on the 27th July In June Christian Gottfried Korner , an important Illuminatus, sent Schiller a letter suggesting he join the Illuminati.

Korner saw to it that all Schiller's debts were paid off and following this, he joined the Order. Furthermore, even if it might seem so from a certain point of view, it would cease to be improper and wrong if it served as a means to thereby achieve blessedness or the final aim of the whole.

This quote comes from the documents of the Order which were taken during the police search of Baron Bassus' castle in Sandersdorf and later published under the collective title "Nachtrag von weitern Originalschriften" in Munich, Two defectors from the Order - Professors Cosandey and Renner - also confirmed in April that an Illuministic principle was "the ends justify the means".

To make sure that the secrets of the Order were not leaked, Weishaupt created a secret police corps within the Order which he called the "insinuating brothers".

These worked in the same manner as the Bolshevik's Cheka and its successors: The "insinuating brothers" acted with full force during the reign of terror which is called the "Great French Revolution", which was largely the work of Illuminati agents.

He said that all sudden changes brought about by violence were repugnant to him because they went against the order of nature.

Naturally, Friedrich von Schiller could not suspect that Heinrich Voss, a young doctor who took care of him, was one of the "insinuating brothers" who reported everything he heard and saw to Weishaupt.

Schiller, Pestalozzi and several other Illuminati from Germany were given French citizenship as "prominent foreigners" in Schiller read about this in the newspaper Moniteur.

After seeing through the Illuminati's evil nature, Schiller planned to write a play called "Demetrius", the working title of which became "The Bloodbath in Moscow".

This play was to uncover some of the atrocities behind the scenes of those in power. Heinrich Voss reported this to Weishaupt who wished to stop this play at any cost.

Fortunately for the Illuminati, Schiller died after a long illness at around six o'clock on the 9th of May A collective of German and foreign experts including Sten Forshufvud from Gothenburg and Professor Hamilton Smith from Glasgow found arsenic in samples of Schiller's hair.

The year-old Schiller's work was never completed; instead he ended up in a mass grave. On 5 December , the freemasons asked the brilliant Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to become a freemason.

This was a double lodge. Soon Mozart reached the very highest degree, the 33rd. Mozart wrote many compositions for Masonic ceremonies. The most important freemasons in Vienna were Illuminati at the same time.

In , 36 of the 83 brothers in Zur wahren Eintracht were Illuminati. There were also many conspirators among the members of To Charity. Mozart's powerful friend, Baron Gottfried van Swieten was an Illuminatus.

Also his closest friend Count August von Hatzfeld was an Illuminatus. In his obituary notice for Hatzfeld in , the local leader of the Illuminati, Christian Gottlob Neefe, praised him in Magazin der Musik.

Neefe was Beethoven's teacher. It was for this reason that Beethoven became a freemason and gained close ties to many Illuminati, including Gemmingen, who had helped Mozart in Mannheim and recruited him as a member of To Charity.

Mozart was impressed by the official intentions of the Illuminati. He did not know any more details. He had no idea what his influential friends really intended.

There is no clear information about whether Mozart even knew that his friends were members of the subversive Illuminati. They only revealed their membership to those whom they might be able to recruit.

All those who are not suitable for the work shall remain in the Masonic lodge and advance there without knowing anything about the additional system.

The Illuminati were forced to leave their lodges. Despite the ban, they continued to act as ordinary freemasons. They went over to The Crowned Hope.

The Illuminati believe that they preach the ultimate truth. But he was not present at the opening ceremony and later he seldom attended their meetings.

During this period, Mozart seldom wrote Masonic music. Only during the last year of his life, , did he produce new pieces of music for the freemasons.

This music contained secret codes and moods. Mozart desired true friends. This was why he became a freemason.

All his friends were freemasons. As a very sociable person, Mozart could not be alone and therefore needed friends to associate with.

It has been observed that Mozart, due to his membership in Masonic lodges, found it easier to succeed and to make a name for himself in Europe, since high-ranking Masonic brothers supported him.

Nearly half of the members of To True Harmony were aristocrats who helped Mozart, for example Esterhazy. Mozart's publishers were also freemasons: Mozart could always count on the brotherly hospitality of the freemasons, and during his sojourns abroad, he always received economic support and free lodgings.

During his travels , the freemasons in Prague and other places helped Mozart in various ways. There is written evidence which proves this.

Friends among the freemasons played a crucial role in aiding Mozart financially: Lichnowsky, Franz Hofdemel and Michael Puchberg were among his most important creditors.

Mozart, in his turn, helped other freemasons by acquiring loans for them. In December , Mozart was appointed the imperial chamber composer.

This gave him requisitions for greater operas. The Illuminati had become a state within the state. Despite all the prohibitions, they continued with their subversive activities against society.

At that time, people lacked experience and resources to protect themselves against freemasonry, which was under the influence of the Illuminati.

The prominent Austrian composer Franz Schubert was not a freemason and he died poor and unappreciated. As a gifted man, Mozart finally managed to see through the Illuminati's evil, despite the fact that it appeared to be an angel of light.

He intended to protect society by founding a secret society with several of his friends, Die Grotte "The Cave". Mozart was well aware of the deadly risk he was taking.

Already in April , he wrote in a letter to his father that death was actually the friend of man and that he could never lie down to sleep without thinking that he, despite his youth, might not see another day.

He wished to expose the magic and the conspiracy of the freemasons to the public. Mozart had a perfect memory. Once he had heard a melody, he could play it again later without making any mistakes.

He used the pyramid of the Illuminati, the all-seeing eye, the temple and other secret symbols. These metaphors were later removed. Mozart also used musical means of expression by contrasting lyrical and tragic themes, elegance and folklore, fantastic details and the solid atmosphere of the orchestra.

The opera premiered in the autumn of The Illuminati could not forgive Mozart for this. He was also paid in advance. The freemasons poisoned the object of their hatred slowly.

Sussmayr finished the opus. Hermann Ahlwardt claimed in his book "Mehr Licht! He died on 5 December , precisely seven years after his initiation into the Masonic lodge.

Salieri was later made the scapegoat. Hermann Wagener's "Staats - und Gesellschaftslexikon" volume 18, confirmed that Mozart was poisoned.

In , several doctors tried to claim that Mozart died of a kidney disease. Dagens Nyheter, 19 September But if he had died a natural death, the freemasons would not have taken away Mozart's body to prevent an autopsy after he died, or laid him in a grave for the poor together with quicklime.

If Mozart had been faithful to the freemasons, he would have been buried with great honours. His hypocritical "Masonic friends" wept crocodile tears.

If "The Magic Flute" had been accepted, those in power would not have sent Johann Emanuel Schikaneder, author of the opera's libretto, to a lunatic asylum, where he died in In Austria, freemasonry was forbidden in the middle of the s.

Society managed to keep its ban on this subversive movement until , when the freemasons in Austria came to power with the aid of the false socialist doctrine.

The freemasons continue to smear and depreciate Mozart today for example Milos Forman in his film "Amadeus". The Illuminati moved freely within the many secret societies of the time seeking to utilise the liberal ideology of freemasonry as a bait for those who lacked knowledge of its true purposes.

Only a minority was allowed to reach the highest mystery degrees. Only those few knew of the true intentions of the order. Cosandey and Renner, together with several other witnesses, claimed that "there was constant talk of the purpose" without any explanation of what this was.

Those of the lower degrees "useful idiots" were only to obey, without understanding why. Weishaupt's plan for seizing power was ingeniously simple.

The moulders of public opinion priests, writers, public officials were to be made obedient tools, whereupon they would, in Weishaupt's words "surround the princes".

As "advisers" they were to influence political decisions in favour of the Illuminati's aims. When entering the Order, the new brothers had vowed: It could just as easily be turned against any particular brother if the "purpose" i.

So the brothers of the lower degrees were made to provide information on printed forms each month on their own actions and those of fellow brothers the so-called Quibus licet.

The leaders of the Order compiled information from these "confessions" which they could use later against any refractory brothers.

Weishaupt also encouraged the Illuminati to steal or copy secret and government documents. The Order needed these documents for its revolutionary activities but it also wanted the brothers to lose any feelings of loyalty for the established order by having them constantly seeking to betray it.

Religion, nationalism, patriotism, loyalty to the ruler, family ties - all such feelings were to be replaced by a single strong loyalty to the Illuminati's cause.

A defector, Joseph Utzschneider, a professor at the Military Academy in Munich, revealed that the constant preaching against the fatherland disgusted him so much that he left the Order.

Some of the main points of this program were:. Suppression of all religion, including all communions and doctrines which could not be subjected as tools for Illuminism.

Suppression of all feelings of nationality and - in the long term - abolition of all nations and introduction of an Illuministic world-state.

Successive transference of all private and national property into the hands of the Illuminati. The methods whereby to accomplish this were new taxation laws which Illuministic officials were to introduce.

Weishaupt's original plans also included a progressive income tax so this is no new invention! Karl Marx, too, wanted a high, progressive income tax in his "Communist Manifesto".

The intention was to weaken society. An all-encompassing espionage and denunciation system with the "insinuating brothers" as prototype.

The symbol of this was the all-seeing eye, an eye within a pyramid, which was the Illuminati's symbol of power.

A global moral rule, a complete standardisation of all people's innermost will, wishes and aspirations beneath "the one will"; the will of the Illuminati.

The Illuminati simply wanted to abolish all forms of ordered government, patriotism, religion and the family to finally set up a world government.

Upright people would never work for such an abhorrent program, so the "normal" Illuminati were filled with fair phrases about love, charity and suchlike which we call "ideology" today.

The further up one advanced, the more primitive were the members. The more primitive the individuals, the lower the ideals enthusing them.

Therefore, the Illuminati have used all sorts of ideologies Nihilism, Liberalism, Fascism or made them up themselves Marxism, Communism, Socialism whereas they themselves were perfectly independent of all ideology.

In The Greater Soviet Encyclopedia published a large amount of information about Adam Weishaupt and the Illuminati, but after this year the entries were blatantly inconsequential.

A conference was held at Mayer Amschel Rothschild's castle in Wilhelmsbad on the 16th July , where the freemasons and Illuminati forged a complete alliance.

In this way, the leading secret societies began a closer co-operation with the Illuminati. Thereby, Weishaupt gained no less than three million tools to work with.

In time, the Illuminati were to bring death and suffering to hundreds of millions of people. Charles de Hericault, "La Revolution", p. The initiative for this conference was Jewish.

A decision to murder emperor Leopold of Austria was also made at the conference. He was poisoned on the 1st March by the Jewish freemason Martinowitz.

Gustavus III of Sweden was murdered the same month. The freemasons had gathered in Lyon in to discuss the coming revolution.

Further congresses were held in Paris in and and in Frankfurt am Main where Rothschild had his bank in The Illuminati sought control over the press and began placing their infiltrators behind the scenes as "experts".

The Order also wanted to influence schools. In , the Illuminati were active in Sweden, Austria, Russia and many other countries. Three years earlier, Professor John Robison had written a thorough exposure of the Illuministic plot in his book "Proofs of a Conspiracy" London, The English poet Percy Bysshe Shelley was initially also fooled by the Illuminati's propaganda, despite Weishaupt having stated fairly distinctly that the purpose of the Illuminati was to act tirelessly until "leaders and nations disappear without violence from the Earth, humanity becomes one great family and the world a residence for sensible people".

But later Shelley came across a copy of Abbe Barruels' sensational book "Memoirs, Illustrating of History of Jacobinism", which had been published in This book revealed, with the help of certain Bavarian documents, the Illuministic Jews' conspiracy.

Shelley took these revelations seriously and recommended the book to his friends. He began to regard the Illuminati as evil incarnate and even suggested to Leigh Hunt, the outspoken author that they found a society where the sensible members would stand against "the society of freedom's enemies".

Shelley afterwards continued to see through the machinations of the Illuminati behind the political scenes. Jefferson and Hamilton opened the Masonic lodges in the United States of America to European Illuminati, despite many voices being raised in warning against this action.

Among these protestants was John Quincy Adams, who was later elected president He wrote a letter to Colonel William L. Stone revealing how Jefferson exploited the Masonic Order to undermine society.

The Illuminati retaliated by making Adams' attempted re-election impossible. Adams was subjected to a vicious smear campaign by the national press, which had already come under the control of the Illuminati.

Adams also tried to publish a revealing book about the Illuminati but the manuscript was stolen. Captain William Morgan, who had reached a high degree within freemasonry and had a central position in the order, found some of the terrible secrets of the Illuminati in his Batavia Lodge No.

In , he explained that it was his duty to warn the public about the secret plans of the Illuminati. Morgan wanted to expose the shady activities of the Masonic elite in a book.

He signed a contract with the publisher, Colonel David C. This brought the members of the concerned lodges to the verge of nervous collapse. At that time there were 50, freemasons in the USA.

Nearly lodges were closed. Many of the remaining lodges cancelled their activities. In the state of New York alone, there were 30, freemasons.

After Morgan's book was published, the number of members decreased to Whalen, "Christianity and American Freemasonry", , p.

Together with four others he kidnapped Morgan and drowned him in a lake, the intention being to scare other freemasons into submission.

The American historian Emanuel M. In the Illuminati lodge in Virginia was founded and Thomas Jefferson became its leader.

When Weishaupt was exposed in Bavaria, Jefferson defended him as an "enthusiastic philanthropist". Within a short time the Illuminati had opened fifteen lodges in America.

Thomas Jefferson did all he could to finally get the Illuminati's pyramid accepted by Congress as the national great seal on the 15th September In , the publicist, statesman and scientist Benjamin Franklin , himself a freemason, demanded that the United States of America defend itself against the Jewish immigration and influence with the help of the constitution, since the Jews had become a state within the state.

This demand was refused and instead the Star of David became the symbol of the military and police in America. George Washington, who had become a freemason in when he was 20 years old, also attempted to oppose the Illuminati's work in America after he was convinced in that they posed a threat to the nation.

Due to this, Weishaupt had made plans to murder Washington if he became too troublesome. David Pappen, President of Harvard University, also came out with a warning against the Illuminati on the 19th of July , and somewhat later Timothy Dwight, President of Yale University, followed suit.

Seward to form an anti-Masonic party in the United States of America in The Party took part in the presidential elections in but had already outmanoeuvred it Weishaupt, like Niccolo Machiavelli in the Republic of Florence, believed that power should be held exclusively by certain chosen people - all the others were unreliable nobodies.

In his posthumously published book "The Prince" , Machiavelli advocated the introduction of an unlimited dictatorship.

Some sources, above all Christian, claim that Weishaupt's ideological prototype was Plato's "Republic". These claims are misleading. Weishaupt despite his hatred of them admired the Jesuits' tactics, discipline and skill at organization, their ability to put talents to good use and their devotion to their cause.

Since Jesuits educated Weishaupt, he was familiar with their experiences of creating totalitarian societies and his prototype was above all the totalitarian and theocratic rule, which the Jesuits enforced, in spite of the Spanish central power, in Paraguay in This slave state existed officially for years, up to when Weishaupt was a twenty-year-old student.

The Jesuits called this serfdom encomienda, meaning mission or protection. According to Morner, every mission had a municipal council, which carried out the Jesuits' orders.

The Jesuits followed a kind of communist method, using cunning and violence. Guarani Indians of both sexes and all ages were put to forced labour for the mission.

The Indians did not have any personal property. All the produce was gathered in communal storehouses. Whatever food and clothing the Indians needed, as well as the general needs of the commune, were distributed from these.

The Jesuits oversaw the work in a factory manner. The Jesuits had introduced work duty. The supply of food and other necessities to the Indians depended on the results of production.

The power structure was centralised and work was performed in groups. The commune even organised entertainment.

When punishment was meted out, the Indians were made to kiss the hand of their executioner, thank him and express their remorse.

The commune leadership was comprised of Jesuit priests from Italy, England and Germany. They had cordoned off the area in a manner reminiscent of a ghetto or Eastern Europe behind the iron curtain.

All this strengthened the idea that the Jesuits aspired to create an independent state. There was no suggestion of the coercion and servitude to come.

Then the trap closed around them. The Jesuits distributed the "savages" among the missions on the Parana River. Many fled home into the jungles only to be enslaved again later.

The Indians were turned into helpless, dependent creatures. Their chances for spiritual development were curbed. Special Jesuit priests like politruks indoctrinated the Indians not to express their dissatisfaction.

At the same time, they tried to accustom the Indians to a militarist attitude and in this way they became the tools of their masters without any thought or will of their own.

Paraguay was an example of standardisation, the "right of co-determination", the factory mentality, communist methods, an iron curtain the area was turned into a ghetto , politruks, servitude, violence, propaganda and militarism.

An interesting fact is that primarily Central European Jesuits of Jewish stock were chosen as leaders of the Paraguay missions.

Information about the real conditions eventually reached the outside world despite all hypocrisy and double-dealing.

In , the Jesuits were ordered to release the Indians and abolish their isolation system. Naturally, the Jesuits claimed that all the accusations brought against them were false but they still admitted that something should be done and offered to help the Indians to gradually become independent again.

They had no intention of keeping their promise. The Jesuits in Paraguay shared the fate of their brothers. One year later, in , they officially left their missions without resistance - missions, which had, through their communist way of life, stifled the spiritual development of the Indians.

Thereby, the Jesuits had gathered experience of indoctrinating the exceedingly freedom-loving Indian nations, and of changing them into obedient slaves in their "commune".

Within only eight years, in , the Jesuit defector Adam Weishaupt formed the Order of the Illuminati. In actual fact, the Jesuits kept their ghettos until well into the nineteenth century.

Slavery was abolished in Adam Weishaupt also worked intensively as a member of the Masonic order Grand Orient to prepare a so-called revolution.

At the same time, the Illuminati had gained a secure footing in France. Another important Illuminatus, the writer and publisher Johann Joachim Christoph Bode , alias Amelius, had travelled to Paris in the same year to organise the French revolution and to give the go-ahead signal for the rebellion two years later, according to Johannes Rogalla von Bieberstein's book "Die These von der Verschworung " Frankfurt am Main, As an Illuminatus, Bode had been successful in making contacts with other freemasons, also in Sweden.

He published the first Masonic periodical during the years He also took part in the Masonic convention in Wilhelmsbad in Weishaupt had earlier sent the Jew Giuseppe Balsamo born 8th June in Palermo , who presented himself under the false title of Count Alessandro Cagliostro, to France so that the Illuminati would control the French Masonic orders.

Cagliostro-Balsamo had been recruited in Frankfurt am Main in One year earlier he had declared himself leader of the Egyptian freemasonry.

Cagliostro also took part in the important Masonic congress in Paris on the 15th February Cagliostro was expelled from France in in connection with the "necklace affair".

He was jailed in Rome in , after attempting to set up a Masonic lodge and was sentenced to life imprisonment. He died on the 26th August Rothschild's most important lackey, Weishaupt, was also sent to Paris with unlimited funds to bribe capable men, organise a revolt and depose the king.

A secret committee was set up at the Masonic convention in February to co-ordinate the actions of the revolution. Weishaupt always played a leading role at the Illuminati's meetings in Paris.

He invited thousands of murderers to Paris. After this, leaflets were spread to incite the people to revolt.

The aim of the freemasons was to dethrone the king. The propaganda machine was skilfully tended. Marie Antoinette became a symbol of all evil in the kingdom.

These so-called revolutionaries, who worked to undermine the established order, were often young and many among them were Jews or freemasons, according to the historian Henrik Berggren, Ph.

The three hundred men who seized power under the French Revolution were all Illuminati. Winrod, "Adam Weishaupt - a Human Devil", p.

Marat and Robespierre officially belonged to a "revolutionary" organization, The embittered. The Association of equals had also been active in Paris since This organization had, in the same year, already decided where to imprison the "enemies of the people".

Winrod, "Adam Weishaupt - a Human Devil" p. Louis Leon Saint-Just, called one of the fathers of totalitarianism, was also a freemason.

The Illuminati took over the Jacobin clubs already in The Jacobins had a centralised network over all France. The first club was taken over by Weishaupt's close collaborators Bode and Baron de Busche.

The Jacobin funds amounted to 30 million livres in Honest researchers have pointed out that the history of the Jacobins is in fact a part of the history of the Illuminati.

We must not forget that one of Weishaupt's titles was "Patriarch of the Jacobins". The Jacobins also wore red caps, which they called "caps of liberty" or Jacobin caps.

According to the still current propaganda, Louis XVI was a merciless and stupid tyrant. In actual fact, he was a kind, well-meaning person, a warmly religious family man and, besides, extremely clever and well-read, according to the French historian Eric Le Nabour's biography of the king, "Le pouvoir et la fatalite" "Power and Destiny".

He often read his encyclopedias. Louis was so near-sighted that he had difficulty recognising people only a few yards away. He was a good locksmith and had a knowledge of mechanics, which surprised contemporary experts.

He liked carpentry and woodwork. The king had no interest in the glamorous aspects of court life. Louis was 16 when he married the year-old Marie Antoinette.

He never travelled abroad. The Illuminati have managed to present as negative a picture of Louis XVI and his France as possible to the post-revolutionary world.

It was not the extravagance and wasteful spending of the court that caused the enormous state deficit, but rather France's support of the American Revolution.

The costs of the war against England became astronomical. Gustavus III was the second. The close connection with Graf Engildeo, shown by this last charter, is curious.

In addition, the Annales Fuldensis record the confiscation of the properties of both Engildeo and Hildegard in the same paragraph, but give no explanation or reason for the punishment.

The connection is best explained by a close family relationship, but this has not been identified. A love affair between the two appears less likely, although not impossible, in view of the considerable age difference: Graf Engildeo was presumably already adult in , the date of the first of the charters in which he is named.

Hildegard's properties were restored to her in [55]. Regino names " Hludowicum " as the only son of " Hludowicum rex " and his wife Liutgard when recording his death at the palace of Frankfurt after accidentally falling from a window [56].

The precise date of this battle is determined from Thietmar who records that " Duke Bruno…great uncle " of Bruno Archbishop of Köln, was drowned in a flooded river on 2 Feb while on an expedition against the Danes, although he does not mention Hugo [58].

The Annales Fuldenses provide a slightly different version of these events, recording that " Hugo filius regis " was killed in battle in while trying to expel " Nordmannos " from the Scheldt river area which they had occupied " longo tempore " [59].

The Annales Fuldenses separate this event from the battle in Saxony in which Bruno and others were killed. She succeeded her sister Hildegard as Abbess of Schwarzach-am-Main in Abbess of Zurich The Annales Alamannicorum record the death in of " Berchta filia regis " [61].

He occupied northern Italy in Nov In mid, he received Ermengard, widow of Boson King [of Provence], and adopted her son Louis as his son and presumably heir [66].

Reuter highlights the absence of evidence of a formal deposition [68]. He was given estates in Alemannia as a pension, but died a few weeks later [69].

Regino records the death " pridie Id Ian " of " Carolus imperator " and his burial " in Augea monasterio " [70]. The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in of " Hludowicus…Karolo filio " and " Ercangarii comitis filiam " [72].

Abbess of Andlau in Alsace At the time of their divorce, the couple both declared that the marriage had never been consummated.

The Annales Argentinenses record that " Richarda imperatrix, Karoli regis uxor " was accused of adultery with " Liutwardo Vercellensi episcopo ", but that she was confirmed to be a virgin at the time of her divorce [73].

The Chronicon of Bernold also records that " Richgarda imperatrix " was accused of adultery with " Liutwardo Vercellensi episcopo " but was later proved to be a virgin [74].

She married secondly Gauzelin ex-Bishop. The Annales Alamannicorum name " Berenhart filius Karoli " when recording his escape from Rhetia in [76].

The Annales Fuldenses record that the emperor wanted to appoint " Bernhartum filiuum suum ex concubina " as his successor in [77].

Bernhard became the focus of opposition in Alemannia to the rule of his cousin King Arnulf and in led a rebellion, together with Ulrich Graf der Linzgau and Bernhard Abbot of St Gallen [78].

He was murdered by Rudolf Count of Rhetia [80]. The Annales Alamannicorum record that " Perenhart filius Karoli " was killed by " Ruodulfo " in [81].

The relationship between the following individual and the above family has not been established. It is also possible that she was a relative of Emperor Arnulf on his mother's side of the family.

He is called " Arnulfum filium spurium Carolomanni " when recording his accession in [86]. During the illness of his father, he administered Bavaria but was obliged to transfer the territory to his uncle Ludwig III on his father's death, in return for receiving the duchy of Carinthia.

Reuter highlights the absence of evidence concerning the manner in which Arnulf assumed power in place of his uncle [87]. Fulco Archbishop of Reims came to Worms in Jun to invite him to claim the kingdom of the West Franks, challenging Eudes who had recently been elected king.

Arnulf won a decisive victory over the Vikings at the River Dyle in , after which Viking raids in the east Frankish kingdom all but ceased [88].

He marched against Lambert of Spoleto, but was struck by paralysis and obliged to return to Bavaria [89]. Regino records the death " III Kal Dec " of " Arnulfus imperator " and his burial " in Odingas ubi et pater eius tumulatus est " [90].

No indication has been found about the origin of Oda. Settipani suggests that she may have been related to the future Konrad I King of Germany [94].

However, he bases this on King Arnulf's charter dated 19 May in which he names " Chonradi…comitis et nepotis nostri " [95]. However, a relationship between Arnulf and Konrad can be identified through Konrad's mother, who was the niece of King Arnulf's paternal grandmother, without the need to speculate on a connection through Queen Oda.

It has been assumed that the Zwentibold named in this charter was the illegitimate son of King Arnulf but this is not certain. In addition, the charter in question specifies no relationship between the emperor and Zwentibold, in contrast to the explicitly mentioned more remote relationship between the former and Markgraf Luitpold.

The name of King Arnulf's third mistress is not known. The Annales Fuldenses record the birth in of Arnulf's son " nomine avi sui Hludowicum " [].

Reuter highlights that charters were issued in the name of King Ludwig as if he was adult, although they were counter-signed by many more magnates acting as "intervenors" than had previously been usual [].

He fought unsuccessfully against the invasion of the Magyars. The Annales Lobienses record the death in of " Loduwicus rex, filius Arnulfi " [].

Herimannus records the death in of " Ludowicus rex adolescens " and his burial in Regensburg []. King Arnulf had one illegitimate son by [Mistress 1 ]: Regino records that, when Arnulf King of the East Franks granted " ducatum Behemensium " to " Zuendiboldo Marabensium Sclavorum regi ", his son was baptised with " nomine suo Zuendibold " [].

Regino records that " Arnolfi Zvendiboldo filio " was given the honours of " Megingaudi comitis " in []. His position in Lotharingia was seriously weakened after when he quarrelled with Graf Reginar who was one of his main supporters [].

He was deposed on the death of his father in and replaced by his legitimate half-brother. He was killed trying to recapture his kingdom [].

Regino specifies that " Zuantibold " was killed in battle " Id Aug " by " comitibus Stephano, Gerardo et Matfriedo circa Mosam " []. Regino records the marriage in of " Ottonem comitem…filiam Odam " and King Zwentibold [].

Jackman speculates that Oda must have been born in [], although this appears to be designed to fit with his theory about Oda's supposed third marriage [].

Regino records that " Gerhard comes " married " Odam uxorem Zuendiboldi regis " after killing her first husband in battle in []. Jackman speculates on this possible third marriage for onomastic reasons, the name of Eberhard's supposed daughter Ingeltrud being that of Oda's maternal grandmother [].

This is the only reference to any children of King Zwentibold. Their existence is improbable, especially given the speculative birth date shown above of Oda wife of Zwentibold, although it is possible that they were illegitimate.

Their names are not, however, typical of the late 9th century in Germany and their absence from any contemporaneous primary sources is surprising if they did exist, considering the number of references to King Zwentibold himself.

The same comments apply to this daughter as the alleged daughters Benedicta and Cäcilie. King Arnulf had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress 2: The Annales Fuldenses records in that " Engilscalcus iuvenili audatia vir " later " rapta de concubina filia regis " [].

The passage does not name the king's daughter. Ellinrat is the only daughter who is named elsewhere, but the text may refer to an otherwise unknown daughter of Emperor Arnulf.

King Arnulf had one illegitimate son by Mistress 3: He was appointed sub-king in Italy after his father's return to Germany in [].

Regino records that " Chuonradus comes " sent " filium suum Chuonradum " against " Gerardum et fratrem eius Matfridum " in []. Graf im Hessengau Graf im Keldachgau He was opposed by his brother-in-law Erchanger who rebelled in , and by Arnulf Duke of Bavaria [].

He was wounded on an expedition against Duke Arnulf, which led to his death []. On his deathbed he nominated Heinrich of Saxony as his successor as king of Germany [].

The necrology of Fulda records the death in of " Cuonradus rex " []. Regino records the death of " Chuonradus rex " in and his burial in Fulda monastery [].

Thietmar records his death on 19 Oct, and his " funeral obsequies…at Weilburg " []. The Annalista Saxo records that "s epultus est in civitate sua Wilinaburh " [].

Thietmar records that Heinrich was " born of the noble lineage of Otto and Hadwig " []. According to the Annalista Saxo, he was son of the unnamed sister of Adalbert [Babenberg], with whom he and his brothers fought against the Konradiner family, his complete parentage being recorded in a later passage [].

King Heinrich re-established Saxon domination over the Slavs after successful campaigns against the Hevelli in and against the Daleminzi and Bohemians in [].

Widukind records that he defeated t he Magyars at the battle of Riade near Merseburg in , their first major setback in their raids on western Europe [].

The necrology of Fulda records the death " Kal Iul " of " Heinrih rex " []. Thietmar records the death of King Heinrich 2 Jul at Memleben " in the…sixtieth year of his life " and his burial at Quedlinburg " which he himself had constructed from the ground up " [].

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "2 Jul" of " Heinricus rex pater magni Oddonis " []. Thietmar names Hatheburg as daughter of " lord Erwin ", specifying that she was widowed without naming her first husband , when recording her marriage to Heinrich [].

She had become a nun after the death of her first husband, which presumably provided the reason for " the outrage perpetrated through this marriage " and the basis for the couple's separation which is not explicitly expressed as such by Thietmar [].

Widukind names " Mahthilda " as wife of King Heinrich, also naming her father and three brothers []. Thietmar names Mathilde as daughter of " Dietrich and Reinhild " when recording her marriage to Heinrich, specifying the was " a descendant of the lineage of King Widukind " [].

Her alleged descent from Widukind is also referred to in the Vita Mahthildis []. Thietmar records that Quedlinburg was bestowed on Mathilde as part of her dower 16 Sep [] , and that she established the convent there thirty days after the death of her husband [].

She played an active part in encouraging the rebellion of her son Heinrich in and was included in the reconciliation of [].

Lay Abbess of Nivelles. Thietmar records the death of Queen Mathilde on 14 Mar, without specifying the year []. The necrology of Fulda records the death " 2 Id Mar " of " Mahthild regina " [].

Widukind names " Thancmari " as son of King Heinrich, when recording his rebellion against King Otto, and in a later passage names his mother [].

Thietmar records the birth of " Tammo " []. He was considered illegitimate on the basis that his mother had taken the veil before her second marriage, which was therefore invalid [].

Thietmar records the rebellion of " Tammo son of the king and Liudgard ", and that Thankmar claimed the inheritance of Siegfried Graf [von Merseburg], who was his mother's first cousin.

He was besieged in Eresburg, forced into the church of St Peter where he was killed 28 Jul by Maginzo before the altar, his murderer being punished with a cruel death by the king " later, in the second year of his reign " [].

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "28 Jul" of " Thancmar frater magni Oddonis " []. The number and names of these children appear definitive apart from any who died in infancy as shown by a list of names in the Libri Confraternitatum Sancti Galli which sets out in order " Heinrich, Mathilt, Otto, Heinrich, Prun, Kerbrich, Adawi, Kysilbref ", no doubt referring to King Heinrich, his wife, children and son-in-law [].

Associate King of Germany, with his father, in Liutprand states that the wife of " Gislebertum Lotharingorum ducem " was " regis sororem " [].

Flodoard names her " Gerbergam " when recording her second marriage []. Her first husband had been a rival of King Heinrich I and maybe planned to establish himself as independent ruler in Lotharingia in [].

As the marriage coincided with Giselbert being created dux , it was presumably arranged to confirm Giselbert's submission to King Heinrich. King Louis married Gerberga without the permission of her brother Otto I King of Germany, probably to increase his hold on Lotharingia ruled by her first husband.

An educated person, she commissioned from Adso of Moutier-en-Der the De ortu et tempore antichristi []. Her second husband gave her the abbey of Notre-Dame de Laon in , taken from his mother on her second marriage.

Abbess of Notre Dame de Soissons in []. Thietmar records that he was captured by Eberhard Duke of Franconia in and " held in chains ".

He rebelled against his brother King Otto in and took part in a campaign of pillaging along the Rhine, joined by Eberhard ex-Duke of Franconia and Giselbert Duke of Lotharingia [Hainaut] [].

They were defeated at Birten and Andernach []. Thietmar records that he was expelled from Regensburg by his nephew Liudolf Duke of Swabia, during the course of the latter's rebellion against his father, but restored by his brother King Otto in [] [].

Regino records the death of " Heinricus frater regis " in []. The necrology of Fulda records the death " Kal Nov " of " Heinrichus dux " [].

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "1 Nov" of " Heinricus dux avus imperatoris Heinrici " []. However, he and subsequent emperors named Heinrich were normally referred to by the ordinal number attached to them as kings of Germany even after their imperial coronations.

Rodulfus Glaber names " sororem [primis Ottonis] Haduidem " as wife of " Hugo dux Francorum cognomento Magnus " []. Flodoard refers to " sororem Othonis regis Transfhenensis, filiam Heinrici " as the wife of " Hugo princeps, filius Roberti ", without naming her, recording the marriage in [].

Chancellor of Germany Archbishop of Köln According to Thietmar, Archbishop Bruno plotted against his brother, offering the crown of Germany to his brother-in-law Hugues "le Grand", but repented of his scheme and was forgiven by King Otto [].

Thietmar records the death of Archbishop Bruno on 11 Oct " in the thirteenth year after his ordination " []. The precise relationships between the following individuals and Emperor Otto I have not been identified.

In each case, the primary sources report an indirect family relationship either between these persons, or members of their families, and the emperor.

The connection is not necessarily through the agnatic side: The Gesta Treverorum records that " Rubertus archiepiscopus " came from " regno quod Lotharingium vocatur " adding that " soror eius imperatori in matrimonio iuncta fuit " [].

The existence of a relationship between this family and the Ottonian emperors is confirmed by the Vita Richardi abbatis S Vidoni Virdunensis which names " comes Lietardus, Ottonis imperator consanguineus " [].

Bishop of Verdun After his accession, the Bohemians and the Abotrites withheld payment of tribute. Otto's half-brother Thankmar rebelled in Saxony with other magnates dissatisfied with the king's distribution of offices.

Thietmar records that he founded the monastery of Magdeburg later Magdeburg Cathedral , encouraged by his first wife, to which the relics of St Innocent were brought [].

He sent armed forces which were unsuccessful in taking reprisals against Rouen in , after members of the local nobility had arranged the escape of Richard I Comte [de Normandie] from his captivity by Louis IV King of the West Franks, his brother-in-law, a nepos unidentified of King Otto being killed in the battle [].

Thietmar records that he invaded Italy in , using the ill-treatment of his future second wife as an excuse, entered Pavia 23 Sep and proclaimed himself king of Italy.

His predecessor Berengario di Ivrea proposed himself as Otto's viceroy in Italy, which was accepted by the Council of Augsburg in Aug King Otto's son Liudolf rebelled in , but was pardoned in Thietmar records that King Otto defeated the Magyars in battle at Lechfeld near Augsburg in [] , which marked the end of their marauding in Europe.

King Otto forced Berengario's retreat to the fortress of San Leo near Montefeltro , finally capturing him in The necrology of Fulda records the death " Non Mai " of " Otto imp " [].

Thietmar records his death at Memleben on 7 May in the thirty-eighth year after his consecration and his burial at Magdeburg [].

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "7 May" of " Otto maior magnus imperator " []. The Book of Hyde names " Edgitham et Elgimam " as fifth and sixth of the six daughters of King Eadweard by his first wife " Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda ", specifying that they were both sent to " Henrico Alemanorum imperatori " and that the former married " filio sui Othoni " [].

Thietmar names " Edith…daughter of King Edmund of England " when recording her marriage during the lifetime of Otto's father, in a later passage stating that she urged her husband to begin establishing the city of Magdeburg [].

Thietmar records her death 26 Jan " in the eleventh year " of the reign of her husband, after 19 years of marriage, and her place of burial [].

Luitprand names " Adelegidam " daughter of Rudolf and Berta, when recording her marriage to " regi Lothario " []. Her birth date range is estimated from having given birth to one child by her first marriage before the death of her husband in She claimed the kingdom of Italy on the death of her husband, as the daughter of one of the rival claimants for the throne earlier in the century.

Willa, wife of Berengario di Ivrea who had been proclaimed king at Pavia 15 Dec , ordered Adelais's imprisonment at Como 20 Apr and " afflicted her with imprisonment and hunger " according to Thietmar [].

Otto I King of Germany used her ill-treatment as an excuse to invade Italy in Sep , although Adelais had succeeded in escaping 20 Aug to Reggio [].

King Otto entered Pavia 23 Sep , proclaimed himself king of Italy, and married Adelais as her second husband. The Annalista Saxo records " Adelheidam reginam " as " coniuge rege Lothario " when she married Otto [].

Flodoard refers to " uxorem quoque Lotharii regis defuncti, filii Hugonis, sororem Chonradi regis " when recording her second marriage [].

Thietmar records that she was crowned empress at Rome with her husband 2 Feb []. Thietmar records that she replaced her daughter-in-law as regent for her grandson King Otto III in [].

The necrology of Fulda records the death " 17 Kal Ian " of " Adalheid imperatrix " []. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.

She was a " captured Slavic noblewoman " according to Thietmar, who gives neither her name nor her parentage []. His birth date is estimate from Widukind stating that he " was still a tender youth no more than seventeen years of age " when his mother died [].

His father installed him as Duke of Swabia in , in succession to Liudolf's father-in-law []. Thietmar records that he rebelled against his father, together with his brother-in-law Konrad Duke of Lotharingia, was besieged at Mainz, but escaped to capture Regensburg and expel his uncle Heinrich Duke of Bavaria [].

Thietmar also records that his father deposed him in as Duke of Swabia, but ultimately forgave his rebellion [].

His father sent him to Italy to control Berengario di Ivrea, Viceroy in Italy, who was attempting to reassert his independence, but Liudolf died there of a fever.

Thietmar places a different slant on the event, stating that Liudolf had once more rebelled against his father and left for Italy []. Thietmar records the death of Liudolf in Italy 6 Sep, " after scarcely a year " following his departure from his homeland, but does not specify the year [].

The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "6 Sep" of " Liuidolfus regis filius " []. Regino specifies that he died in Italy and was buried in Mainz St Alban [].

Widukind names " ducis Herimanni filiam Idam " as wife of Liudolf []. Regino records the marriage of " filiam Herimanni ducis " and " Liutolfus filius regis " in [].

Regino records the birth of " Mathildis filia Liutolfo " at the end of []. Abbess of Essen []. Regino records the birth of " Liutolfo filius Otto " in [].

He campaigned in Italy with his uncle Emperor Otto: The death of " Otto dux egregius, filius Liudolfi, fratruelis Ottonis secundi ", soon after this defeat, is recorded in the Annalista Saxo [].

He is presumably the " Otto dux Sueuorum " whose death is recorded " 1 Nov " in The necrology of Merseburg []. Widukind records her marriage to " Conrado " [].

According to Thietmar, Liutgard was accused by " a certain Cono " of adultery but her name was cleared after Graf Burkhard fought her accuser in combat in her name [].

Regino records the death of " Liutgarda filia regis " in []. The necrology of Merseburg records the death "18 Nov" of " Liudgard filia imperatoris Ottonis " [].

Thietmar records her burial in "the church of…Alban at Mainz" []. He rebelled against his father-in-law, together with his brother-in-law Liudolf Duke of Swabia, but was ultimately forgiven although deposed as Duke of Lotharingia.

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "7 Apr" of " Heinricus filius Oddonis regis " []. Although the year is not indicated, Heinrich's years of birth and death must be approximately as estimated here in view of the tight chronology of the births of King Otto's children.

She is referred to as " sorore imperatoris abbatissa Quidelingeburgensi ", but not named, when the Annalista Saxo records her presence with her brother and his wife celebrating Christmas at Rome in [].

She is named " Machtilda Quidelingeburgensi abbatissa " in a later passage []. Thietmar records that Emperor Otto II bequeathed one quarter of his treasure to his sister Mathilde " who presided over the abbey at Quedlinburg " [].

Regino records the birth of " Otto filius regis " at the end of []. He was crowned associate Emperor 25 Dec at Rome [].

On his accession, he claimed Byzantium's possessions in Italy as part of his wife's dowry. His chancery adopted the title " imperator Romanorum augustus " in [].

After holding court at Verona, where his son was elected associate king, Otto II left for Rome where he died of malaria []. Her name is not given in the document.

It is unlikely, given the date of the marriage of Emperor Nikeforos Fokas and Theofano in that any daughter of theirs would have been considered marriageable in the late s by Emperor Otto.

It is therefore likely that the document was prepared before Luitprand's visit, in ignorance of the details of the emperor's family members.

The identity of the proposed bride is therefore not certain. Prior to Luitprand's arrival in Constantinople, Emperor Nikephoros was murdered.

According to Thietmar, his successor Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes sent his niece Theofano back to Germany " not the desired maiden…accompanied by a splendid entourage and magnificent gifts " [].

Western sources consistently refer to Theofano as " neptis " of Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes, for example the charter dated 14 Apr under which " Otto…imperator augustus " granted property to " Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim " [].

Her exact relationship to Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes is unknown. It is possible that she was a relative of the emperor's wife rather than of the emperor himself.

Davids suggests that she was the daughter of Konstantinos Skleros and his wife Sofia [] , who was probably the sister of the first wife of Emperor Ioannes.

An indication that this may be correct is that Theofano's second daughter was named Sophie, normal Byzantine practice being to name the first daughter after the paternal grandmother and the second after the maternal grandmother [].

It also appears to be chronologically sustainable. However, too little is known about the families of Emperor Ioannes and his wife to propose this as the only plausible hypothesis, especially as the word " neptis " could cover a wide variety of relationships.

In addition, it cannot even be assumed that the wife of Konstantinos Skleros was the only individual named Sofia in these families at the time.

She was regent during the minority of her son Thietmar records the death of Empress Theofano at Nijmegen on 15 Jun and her place of burial [].

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "15 Jun" of " Theophanu imperatrix " []. The birth of a daughter of " Ottoni inperatori et Theophanu auguste…quam nominee matris sue imperatricis insignivit " is recorded in the Annalista Saxo in [] , but this appears incorrect assuming that the approximate birth dates of her sisters Sophie and Mathilde are correct and that Adelheid was her parents' oldest daughter as recorded by Thietmar, who also confirmed that she became a nun at Quedlinburg [].

She succeeded her paternal aunt as abbess of Quedlinburg in , according to Thietmar who in one part of the text calls Adelheid sister of her predecessor Mathilde and in another part sister of Otto III [].

Abbess of Gernrode and Verden , and Gandersheim The Vita Godehardi names " Sophia , secundi imperatoris Ottonis filia " when recording that she was brought up at Gandersheim [].

Thietmar records that Sophie was Theofano's second daughter, and that she became a nun at Gandersheim []. Canoness at Gandersheim, elected abbess in , installed The Annalista Saxo records the death of " domna Sophia…Gandersheimensis abbatissa " in , specifying that she was sister of " Adelheit Quidilingeburgensis abbatissa " [].

Thietmar records that " Mathilde the emperor's sister married Ezzo, who was the son of Hermann the count palatine ", commenting that " this displeased many " [].

Piligrim Archbishop of Köln confirmed the donation of " allodium suum in Brunwilre " to the abbey of St Nicholas made by " Erenfridus comes palatinus […et frater eius comes Hecelinus]…cum coniuge sua domna Mathilde " by charter dated 10 Oct [].

The Annales Brunwilarenses record the death in of " domna nostra Mathilda " []. The primary source which records the existence of this daughter has not so far been identified.

His cousin Duke Heinrich "der Zänker" rebelled against him, gained support in Bavaria, but was obliged to concede at Rohr 29 Jun [].

His accession was confirmed at Quedlinburg at Easter []. He ruled through the regency of his mother until her death in , and under that of his paternal grandmother until Sep , when he was declared of age at Sohlingen [].

Crowned Emperor at Rome 21 May He died of a fever, probably smallpox. Thietmar records the death of the emperor on 24 Jan at Paterno and his burial at Aachen [].

No corroborative sources have been identified, and the report appears unlikely, not only because of what must have been an evident age difference between the parties but also the unlikelihood that the young emperor would appear to condone his enemy's treachery by marrying his widow.

She was named as deceased in a document dated [] , although it remains to be clarified whether this is a reference to Theodora, widow of Crescentius [II]'s older brother Ioannes [I] Crescentius.

Thietmar records that " Helena from the Greeks " who later married " the king of the Russians Vladimir " had formerly been betrothed to Otto III " but was then denied to him through fraud and cunning " [].

This betrothal is unlikely or the report of it at best confused. The marriage of Anna of Byzantium, wife of Grand Prince Vladimir, took place in and there is no indication in other sources of her earlier betrothal to Otto.

The Historia Welforum names " filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint " as wife of " Couno comes " []. She may be " domna Rilint " from whom " Heinricus…rex " acquired property " in Halla in pago Salzburcgouui in comitatu Thiemonis comitis ", which he donated to the bishopric of Bamberg by charter dated 1 Nov [].

Jackman [] identifies her as daughter of Liudolf [of Saxony] Duke of Swabia, son of Emperor Otto I, but the question is not without controversy.

In view of the clear statement in the Historia Welforum and the spurious charter, it has been decided to show her here as the child of Emperor Otto I despite the unreliability of these sources, but in square brackets to indicate doubt.

If this is correct, she must presumably have been the child of the emperor's second marriage, unless she was illegitimate.

Thietmar names Wilhelm as " the offspring of a captured Slavic noblewoman and the king " []. The Annales Quedlinburgensis record the installation of " Willihelmus filius regis " as Archbishop of Mainz in [].

Thietmar records the death of Wilhelm Archbishop of Mainz at Rottleberode on 2 Mar, in the same year as Queen Mathilde died in [].

King Otto had one possible illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: No other reference to this Sicco has been identified. Two other nobleman named Siegfried have been identified at the time: In addition, in the case of Comte Siegfried, he would have been referred to in such a list with his comital title, and in any case the list in question includes in another section a Lotharingian contingent in which he would have been placed if he had been sent to Italy.

Thietmar names " Konrad who had illegally married his own cousin, the widow of Duke Ernst " when recording that he was wounded when Gerhard Graf von Metz his maternal uncle met Godefroi II Duke of Lower Lotharingia for " a judicial duel " 27 Aug [].

Crowned King of Italy at Milan in Mar Founded Kloster Limburg The Annales Spirenses record his burial at Speyer [].

The Annalista Saxo names her three husbands, although the order of her first and second marriages is interchanged which appears impossible chronologically [].

She was crowned Queen of Germany at Köln 21 Sep Crowned empress, with her husband, at Rome 26 Mar Herimannus records her death at Goslar [].

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "24 Sep" of " Beatrix filia Cuonradi imperatoris " []. Her absence from the list of deceased relatives in the donation of " Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus " to the church of Worms by charter dated 30 Jan suggests that Mathilde died after that date, while her absence from the list of the children of Emperor Konrad named in the same charter is explainable on the basis of her youth [].

Wipo names " Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris " when recording his first marriage in []. Duke of Swabia He was installed as king of Burgundy by his father in Autumn Regent of the duchy of Carinthia He resumed possession of the duchy of Bavaria from to At the same time Emperor Heinrich received the rank of patricius as a hereditary title, which carried the right to cast the first vote in a papal election, the power of which was reflected in the election of six German popes during the following decade [].

A deeply religious man, Emperor Heinrich renewed the ban on clerics taking oaths in court proceedings, refused to follow the practice of bestowing church offices for payment, and laid great emphasis on the sacral character of kingship [].

He founded the convent of St Simon and Jude at Goslar before He died of a fever. Adam of Bremen records that the daughter of King Knud married " imperator filio suo " [].

Her parentage is given by Orderic Vitalis, who also refers to her marriage []. Wipo names " Chnutonis regis Anglorum filiam, nomine Chunehildem " as wife of " Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris " when recording their marriage in [].

Herimannus names " Chunihildem, Cnutonis Danorum et Anglorum regis filiam " when recording her marriage to " Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris " in [].

The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that " uxor imperatoris Henrici Gunhildis imperatrix de Anglia " was accused of adultery, that she was defended in trial by combat, but that after her champion's victory she disdained the success and became a nun [].

William of Malmesbury also recounts that she was accused of adultery and retired to a convent []. Herimannus names her " Agnetam, Willehelmi Pictaviensis filiam " when recording her marriage [].

She was crowned empress with her husband at Rome 25 Dec She was regent during the minority of her son from Her husband's old adviser, Gerhard von Eichstätt by then Pope Victor II, who was in Germany when her husband died, remained in Germany until Spring as the chief adviser of Agnes and ensured a smooth transition of power [].

Agnes resigned as regent and went to Rome []. Wipo records that " regina Chunehildis " left a single daughter unnamed specifying that she later became a nun [].

The source which names her has not yet been identified. Abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim At the end of the passage dealing with , Herimannus records the birth of a daughter to " Agnes regina " but does not name her [].

This presumably refers to Mathilde, probably her parents' oldest child given the date of her marriage. The Annales of Berthold record the marriage in of " Roudolfus Alemmanorum dux " and " Mahthildam, Heinrici regis sororem " and the death in of " Mahthilt soror regis " [].

The Annales Sancti Blasii record the marriage in of " Roudolfus dux " and " Mahtildam regis sororem " and the death of " Mahtilt uxor Roudolfi ducis " in [].

He was one of the nobles opposed to his brother-in-law King Heinrich IV. He was elected anti-king of Germany at Forcheim in Feb by the German nobility who were affronted by Pope Gregory VI's withdrawal of the order of excommunication against King Heinrich [].

The Pope remained neutral at the time but after repeating his excommunication order against King Heinrich in , he declared support for Rudolf as anti-king [].

The Annalista Saxo names " sorore regis Adelheida Quidelingeburgensi abbatissa " []. Abbess of Gandersheim Abbess of Quedlinburg The Annalista Saxo records the birth of " Heinrico inperatori filius quartus Heinricus " [].

The Annales Necrologici Fuldenses record the death in of " Cuonrad infans filius imperatoris " []. The Annales Yburgenses refer to the wife of " Ungariam…[rex] Salemannum " as " regis Heinrici sororem " but do not name her [].

Having left Hungary for Germany after her husband was deposed in , she was living in Regensburg when her husband attempted to reclaim the Hungarian throne.

She refused to receive him when he returned in The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum specifies her name " Iudite " []. This could only refer to the future Philippe I King of France as it is unlikely that the emperor's daughter would have been betrothed to his younger brother.

This betrothal is not corroborated in the western European primary sources so far consulted. Emperor Heinrich had one [possible illegitimate] child by [an unknown mistress]: Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that the age of her son Johann is correct when he died.

Assuming that her paternity is correctly stated, her absence from other contemporary records and her comparatively obscure marriage suggest that she was illegitimate.

Emperor Heinrich IV, who would have been Azela's half-brother if the relationship is correctly stated here, made numerous donations to Speyer cathedral between and , during the bishopric of Azela's son Johann.

However, in none of these is any blood relationship with the bishop directly mentioned by using words such as " consanguineus " or " propinquus ".

Nevertheless, in the emperor's donation dated 21 Sep he calls Bishop Johann " fidele servicium carissimi ", a phrase which appears more intimate than those usually seen in imperial donations to bishoprics and which could be consistent with family relationship [].

His father crowned him associate king of Germany at Aachen 17 Jul King Heinrich faced many difficulties with his nobility.

He deprived Otto von Northeim of the duchy of Bavaria in after accusing him of an assassination plot. King Heinrich was eventually forced to leave his fortress of Harzburg and seek protection in Worms, for which he rewarded the town with special privileges in [].

Under the peace of Gerstungen in early Feb , he was obliged to demolish his castles, except Harzburg although the latter was stormed by Saxon peasantry and destroyed [].

Difficulties with the papacy centred around the dispute about lay investiture in Germany. After King Heinrich's accession, the right of patricius to cast the first vote in papal elections was largely ignored, resulting in declining German influence in the selection of new Popes.

The Pope, in response, deposed and excommunicated the king, who was forced into obedience. King Heinrich crossed the Alps into Italy with his family and appeared in Jan as a penitent before the castle of Canossa, in which the Pope had taken refuge, and forced a reconciliation.

The German princes, affronted by the withdrawal of the excommunication, elected Rudolf von Rheinfelden as rival king of Germany at Forcheim in Feb [].

The Pope repeated his excommunication order in , and declared support for the anti-king []. In the deepening dispute between Church and empire, Emperor Heinrich enjoyed temporary success against Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, one of the Pope's most ardent supporters, and defeated her troops at Tresenta in [].

However, the emperor was left without political support and was obliged to remain confined in a castle near Verona to avoid capture [].

He returned to Germany in after six years campaigning in Italy, and recovered some of his political power after reconciling himself with the Welf and Zähringen families.

He held an assembly at Mainz in to regulate the succession, declaring his older son deposed and nominating his younger son as his successor [].

In , Pope Paschal II renewed the excommunication against the emperor who largely ignored the move. At a general assembly in Mainz in , the emperor proclaimed a four year peace for the empire, but in his son Heinrich rebelled against him, captured his father, forced him to hand over the royal insignia, and held him semi-prisoner at Ingelheim.

The younger Heinrich declared himself sole king of Germany at an assembly in Mainz in early The necrology of Prüm records the death " 7 Id Aug " of " Heinricus imperator filius Heinrici imperator " [].

Her husband proposed to repudiate her in , but withdrew his demand []. The dispute was not finally settled until when Empress Bertha's mother intervened to prevent any repudiation in return for mediating between the emperor and Pope Gregory VII in Canossa [].

The Annales Sancti Diibodi record the death in of " Bertha imperatrix " and her burial " apud Moguntiam " []. The Annalista Saxo names " Eupracciam filiam regis Ruscie qui in nostra lingua vocobatur Adelheid, quam postea duxit Heinricus imperator " as wife of " Heinricus marchio " [].

Contemporary chroniclers were scandalised by the alleged sexual abuses inflicted on his second wife by Emperor Heinrich III.

According to Helmold of Bossau Chronica Slavorum , King Heinrich " had made a public prostitute of his wife, subjecting her by force to the lust of other men ".

The emperor imprisoned his wife at Verona, from where she was released in by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany. The Annales Sancti Diibodi gives lengthy details concerning her divorce [].

The divorce is recorded in Annalista Saxo under []. The empress publicly denounced her husband at the council of Piacenza, presided over by Pope Urban II from 1 Mar [].

She became a nun at Kiev in The Primary Chronicle records that Ievpraxia daughter of Vsevolod took the veil 6 Dec [] , and the death 10 Jul of Ievpraxia daughter of Vsevolod and her burial place [].

In a subsequent passage, the Gesta records the second marriage of Agnes to " Leopaldo Orientali marchioni " []. The Continuatio Claustroneoburgensis records the marriage of " Liupoldus marchio Austrie " and " Agnetem imperatoris Heinrici IV filiam ", specifying that the couple had seven children who died in infancy and eleven who survived into adulthood, six sons and five daughters [].

The marriage presumably took place early in the year if it is correct, as stated by Haverkamp, that it was arranged by Agnes's brother, the future Emperor Heinrich IV, to obtain her future husband's support for his rebellion against their father [].

The Auctarium Mellicense records that Agnes, wife of " Leopoldus marchio ", gave birth to 18 children []. The Annales Magdeburgenses record the death in of " Agnes marchionissa mater Cuonradi regis " [].

His father crowned him associate king of Germany at Aachen 30 May , at which time the duchy of Lower Lotharingia was conferred on Godefroi de Bouillon [Boulogne].

He was crowned king of Italy in Milan by Archbishop Anselm, although he is also referred to as king of Lombardy [].

His father excluded him from the succession in , and declared him deposed [] , although by that time Emperor Heinrich had returned to Germany and appears to have had little influence on affairs in Italy.

The Annales Sancti Diibodi record the death in of " Cuonradus filius imperatoris " in Italy and his burial " in civitate Florentia " []. The Chronicon of Bernold records the marriage in " in Tusciam Pisas " of " Chonradus rex " and " filiam Rogerii ducis de Sicilia, adhuc admodum parvulum cum inaudita pecunia " but does not name the bride [].

Malaterra records the marriage in in Pisa of " Corradum…Henrici filium " and " filiam Siculorum Calabriensium comite " but also does not name her [].

Houben says "we think the bride was called Maximilla" but cites no source to support this []. The primary source which names her has not yet been identified.

She returned to southern Italy after her husband's death. No other reference to this alleged daughter has been found. The Annalista Saxo records the birth in of " Heinrico regi filius iunior " [].

His father declared him as his successor in at Mainz []. In , Heinrich broke with his father who was taken prisoner and forced to hand over the royal insignia at Ingelheim.

Regarding this as an abdication, Heinrich had himself declared sole King of Germany at an assembly in Mainz in early Jan King Heinrich clashed immediately with the papacy by persisting in the practice of lay investiture.

During the course of negotiations to settle the issue, Heinrich left for Italy, spending time in Lombardy to rebuild the machinery of imperial government, and agreed a compromise with Pope Paschal II who agreed to crown him emperor 12 Feb The ceremony was halted by disputes over the settlement agreement, Heinrich imprisoned the Pope and his cardinals, and forced a new agreement at Ponte Mammolo near Tivoli 4 Apr under which the right to investiture was conceded in the absence of simony.

Emperor Heinrich was obliged to intervene in Saxony where Duke Lothar von Süpplingenburg strengthened his power base. Although the duke submitted to the emperor in , the imperial army was defeated by the Saxons at Welfesholz in [].

After the death of Matilda Ctss of Tuscany in , Emperor Heinrich left for Italy to claim her inheritance but was forced into long negotiations with the papacy which reopened the question of lay investiture.

The process concluded with the Concordat of Worms 23 Sep under which Emperor Heinrich renounced the use of spiritual symbols in lay investiture, promised canonical elections and free consecration, but was accorded the right to be present at elections of bishops and abbots in Germany [].

Emperor Heinrich probably died of cancer []. Her parentage is stated by Orderic Vitalis []. Florence of Worcester records that " rex Anglorum filiam suam " was betrothed to " Heinrico regi Teutonicorum " in [], and the marriage " VIII Id Jan " at Mainz in [] of " Heinrico Romanorum imperatori " and " Matildis filia regis Anglorum Heinrici ", and her coronation as empress the same day [].

She asserted the right to succeed after the death of her father and fought King Stephen in a civil war in which she was finally defeated 1 Nov The name of the mistress of Emperor Heinrich V is not known.

Emperor Heinrich V had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress 1: He succeeded his father in as Conte di Tuscolo.

The precise relationship between the following family sub-group and the Kings of Germany has not been established, although the " imperator " referred to by Orderic Vitalis was presumably Emperor Heinrich V, whose wife's brother was among those also drowned in the sinking of the White Ship.

The election of Rudolf von Rheinfelden, Duke of Swabia, as anti-king of Germany in represented a symbolic strengthening of election versus hereditary succession as a means of choosing the king of Germany and strengthened the control of the nobility over the central authority of the king.

At the time of the election, Rudolf was obliged to take a vassalistic oath to the Pope and to swear to the princes that he renounced any claim to hereditary kingship [].

The election of Hermann Graf von Salm to succeed Rudolf von Rheinfelden as anti-king of Germany in constituted an even more graphic demonstration of the increase in power of the nobility, who were anxious to choose a candidate with little territorial influence in Germany and who would therefore not be strong enough to exercise political authority.

The difficulty was that Hermann was unable to wield any influence at all and after his death no further anti-king was elected.

Two sources have been identified which indicate the family origin of Hermann [anti] King of Germany. However, reconciling these two sources quoted above suggests that this normally accepted family origin should be reconsidered for two reasons.

Firstly, looking at the Chronicon , if King Hermann shared both parents with Conrad Comte [de Luxembourg], how could he also have been the son of the brother of Heinrich von Laach?

Assuming that all this speculation is correct, it is possible that King Hermann was the same person as Hermann Graf von Gleiberg.

A less powerful magnate, he was forced for a time to flee to Denmark []. On the death of Emperor Heinrich IV, four candidates emerged as candidates for the throne of Germany []: The election of Duke Lothar as king of Germany reflected the strengthening power of the nobility who demonstrated their freedom to choose a candidate unconnected with the previous dynasty.

Archbishop Adalbert of Mainz was the driving force in the election []. Duke Lothar immediately sought to build-up his lordship, triggered in the intervention of the emperor to whom he submitted in The dispute culminated in the defeat of the imperial army by the Saxons at Welfesholz in [].

He was crowned 13 Sep at Aachen. In , King Lothar became embroiled in the dispute between rival Popes Anacletus II and Innocent II, in the hope of securing a return to the full right of lay investiture.

He conceded the Pope's ownership of the lands previously held by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, in return for a usufruct over them, and installed his son-in-law Heinrich "der Stolze" Welf Duke of Bavaria to govern these territories [].

King Roger offered peace negotiations after the army took Benevento and Bari, but jurisdictional disputes broke out between the emperor and the Pope and the army returned to Germany, Emperor Lothar dying en route [].

The Hohenstaufen family were representative of a new type of nobility which emerged in Germany in the second half of the 11th century.

They were unconnected either with the original German tribes, such as the Saxons or Franks, or with the artificial political creation Lotharingia.

The family owed its rise to power to strategically placed castles, in particular the castle of Stauf on the Staufenberg near Göppingen, from which the family took its name.

The Staufer broadened their influence by building further castles and eventually centred their activities around the town of Waiblingen in Swabia, from which their Italian supporters eventually adopted their name "Ghibellines".

The dynasty is known to history as "Hohenstaufen", although the name does not appear as such in the contemporary primary sources. After his older brother's breach with Lothar von Süpplingenburg King of Germany, Konrad was elected anti-king of Germany in Dec by his supporters in Franconia and Swabia [].

He was unsuccessful in retaining the lands previously held by Matilda Ctss of Tuscany, to which he had a hereditary claim as nephew of Emperor Heinrich IV, and returned to Germany in [].

Konrad eventually submitted to Emperor Lothar with his brother in , and took part in the Italian campaign as imperial standard-bearer [].

He was crowned at Aachen by the papal legate 13 Mar His main rival, Heinrich "der Stolze" [Welf] Duke of Bavaria, acknowledged Konrad's election but demanded the duchy of Saxony, which was refused.

He was deprived of his duchy of Bavaria and outlawed []. King Konrad strengthened his position by enfeoffing close relations with the duchy of Bavaria his half-brother Leopold IV Markgraf of Austria , the duchy of Lower Lotharingia his wife's brother-in-law Godefroi de Louvain and the Rhineland Palatinate his brother-in-law Hermann von Stahleck.

King Konrad sealed an alliance with Byzantium in by arranging the marriage of his wife's sister with the son of Emperor Ioannes II, although the marriage did not finally take place until as negotiations were delayed first by the emperor's death and later by additional dowry demands from the Byzantines [].

The dispute with the Welf family persisted, despite King Konrad's defeat of Duke Welf VI at Weinsberg in and a temporary settlement achieved in [].

At Ephesus King Konrad was obliged by ill health to return to Constantinople where he remained until Mar [].

Konrad took part in the unsuccessful attempt to capture Damascus in Jul , but left Acre 8 Sep for Thessaloniki. Konrad refused, however, to cooperate with the scheme of Louis VII King of France to launch a new crusade aimed at taking vengeance on Byzantium [].

Bei diesem Kurs, steht in erster Linie eine gesundheitsorientierte Kräftigung des Muskelgewebes und damit eine präventive Behandlung von Bewegungsstörungen im Vordergrund. Strong X Durch schnell ausgeführte Maximalkraftübungen werden Beweglichkeit und Koordinationsvermögen gefördert, Kraftzuwachs und Testosteronproduktion erhöht und das ein oder andere Muskelwachstum ausgelöst. F - Fortgeschritten erst wenn Du soweit harrington casino texas holdem. Ein Mix von Ausdauer- und Kraftausdauertraining für den ganzen Körper. Wir bieten Hatha Yoga an, dies ist eine Yogaform, die sowohl kraftvolle, lebendige Elemente wie auch sanfte, entspannende Bewegungsformen enthält. MMA kurz für Mixed Martial Arts, ist ursprünglich ein Kampfsportturnierformat Beste Spielothek in Schloß Ricklingen finden dem Kämpfer unterschiedlichster Stilrichtungen gegeneinander antreten. Die Teilnahme muss vom Trainer genehmigt sein. Neben leichtathletik wm speerwurf männer Trainingsgeräten netent phantom Baumstämmen, Reifen friendscout24 kundenservice telefon Vorschlaghämmern werden dazu auch Hanteln und Kettlebells, sowie alles was schwer und unhandlich genug ist für Hebe- und Trageübungen eingesetzt. Cross X Ein Fitnesskurs, der auf dem Grundgerüst eines ausgewogenen, athletischen military Fitnessprogramms mit vielen Eigengewichtübungen beruht. Ein Fitnesskurs, der auf dem Grundgerüst eines ausgewogenen, athletischen military Fitnessprogramms mit vielen Eigengewichtübungen beruht. Jegliche Form der Kontaktaufnahme Ihrerseits zum Play Azteca Slots Online at Casino.com South Africa der Rückwerbung ist nicht erwünscht und ich bitte freundlich darum, davon abzusehen. Die Teilnahme muss Beste Spielothek in Neuweier finden Trainer genehmigt sein.

Ende Februar muss man richtig durchstarten um spätestens im Juni in absoluter Topform zu sein. Es ist eine Tatsache, dass eine gute Form mit tollen Muskeln nicht vom Himmel fällt.

Aber wie gesagt "der KANN glänzen"! Wer glaubt, dass ein paar Wiederholungen mehr in den Trainingssätzen eine bessere Definition und die gewünschte Sommerfigur bringen, der ist auf dem Holzweg.

Mein Tip für eine Top Strandfigur ist folgender: Mach jeden zweiten Tag eine Stunde Ausdauertraining bei einem er Puls.

Das kann auch eine Stunde Radfahren oder Joggen an der freien Natur sein. Stellt Eure Ernährung auf folgende Rahmenbedingungen um: Wer diese Regeln befolgt, der wird im nächsten Sommer in seiner Topform sein.

Gibt es eine leckere Alternative, die Du mir empfehlen kannst? Hier ein klassisches Beispiel, welches im Handumdrehen zubereitet ist.

Als zweites gibt man den Magerquark dazu und verrührt diesen ebenfalls mit der Buttermilch. Jetzt röstet man die Kokosflocken ohne Fett in einer kleinen Pfanne an, bis diese leicht goldig sind.

Nun die Himbeeren in der Mikrowelle erhitzen. Nährwerte pro Portion g! Ich habe mir jetzt in den letzten 2 Jahren 3-mal einen Knochenbruch zugezogen.

Mein Arzt sagt, dass dies an meinem schwachen Knochenbau liegt. Nun bin ich kein kleiner schmächtiger Kerl, ganz im Gegenteil, ich habe sogar 10 kg Übergewicht.

Ich habe mal gelesen, dass schwere Menschen einen eher starken Knochenbau haben. Was ist nun richtig und was kann ich für einen starken Knochenbau trainingsspezifisch tun?

In Bezug auf eine aktuelle belgische Knochenstudie, kann ich Deinem Arzt nur zustimmen. Bisher nahm man an, dass Menschen mit einem hohen Körperfettgehalt einen sehr stabileren Knochenbau haben.

Diese Vermutung ist jedoch in der belgischen Studie wiederlegt worden. Es wurde bewiesen, dass Menschen mit einem hohen Anteil an Muskelmasse eine deutlich stabilere Knochenstruktur aufweisen und dass gezieltes Muskelaufbautraining auch das Knochengewebe stimuliert.

Erstaunlich finde ich jedoch, dass in der Studie belegt wurde, je höher der Anteil an Fettmasse bei den Probanden war, desto geringer deren Knochenvolumen war.

Zielstrebiges Muskelaufbautraining stützt nicht nur das Menschliche Skelett, es erhöht auch die Knochenstabilität und reduziert somit das Risiko auf Knochenbrüche.

Kann man in einer Diät Fettverbrennung auch Pommes essen? Diese bestehen doch aus Kartoffeln und haben recht wenige Kohlenhydrate.

Demzufolge müssten Pommes doch keine negative Auswirkung auf meine Fettverbrennung haben? Meine Antwort wird viele erstaunen. Ja, man kann Pommes während einer Fettverbrennungsdiät essen, wenn man sie richtig zubereitet!

Es gibt von einigen Herstellern wie z. Dabei benötigt man gerademal 1 Esslöffel Pflanzenöl, für 2 Portionen Pommes! Wenn man seine Pommes auf diese Art und Weise zubereitet, haben diese ca.

Ich würde jedem empfehlen, diese Möglichkeit zu nutzen und damit eine zusätzliche Abwechslung in die Ernährung zu bringen. Leider hinkt meine Beinstrecker und Beinbeuger deutlich hinterher.

Ich habe alles Mögliche ausprobiert um dieses Problem zu lösen, leider ohne Erfolg. Wie würdest Du das Training angehen? Das Training würde ich wie folgt angehen.

Zu Beginn sollte man die Beinmuskulatur gut dehnen und 5 Minuten auf dem Ergometer erwärmen um das Verletzungsrisiko gering zu halten.

Als erste Übung würde ich 3 Sätze Tiefkniebeuge mit einer wirklich hohen Intensität durchführen. Am tiefsten Punkt würde ich ein bis zwei Sekunden stoppen und möglichst explosiv aufstehen.

Der Wiederholungsbereich sollte bei Wiederholungen liegen. Jedoch bevor man an die 3 intensiven Sätze geht, müssen 2 leichte Sätze mit ca.

Als zweite Übung empfehle ich 3 Sätze an der Beinpresse. Diese Sätze sollten flüssig ausgeführt werden. Der Wiederholungsbereich liegt bei dieser Übung bei Wiederholungen.

Jetzt kommen die Beinstrecker an die Reihe. Es werden nur zwei Sätze sein, jedoch mit jeweils Wiederholungen.

Jede Wiederholung muss mit voller Konzentration erfolgen um das berühmte Brennen tief in der Muskulatur hervorzurufen. Als letzte Übung kommen die klassischen Beinbeuger an die Reihe.

Der Wiederholungsbereich liegt bei Wiederholungen. Diese müssen ebenfalls mit einer sehr hohen Konzentration und Intensität ausgeführt werden. Ich bin 26 Jahre alt und trainiere bereits seit 4 Jahren mit maximalen Gewichten.

Seit mehreren Wochen habe ich fast täglich ein Taubheitsgefühl im rechten Bein. Das merkwürdige ist, dass ich beim Training keinerlei Probleme habe.

Wie kann man dies deuten und was sollte ich dagegen machen? Deine Ausführungen weisen auf eine nicht zu unterschätzende Schädigung oder Reizung der Nerven im Bandscheibenbereich Wirbelsäule im unteren Rücken hin.

Aber auch eine Fehlstellung der Hüfte kann eine mögliche Ursache sein. Dies sollte man auf keinen Fall auf die leichte Schulter nehmen und unverzüglich einen Facharzt konsultieren.

Im schlimmsten Fall sind solche Anzeichen der Vorbote für einen Bandscheibenvorfall. Aber auch die Ausführung Deiner Übungen sollten kritisch geprüft werden.

Oft schleichen sich schlechte Übungsausführungen ein, die man selbst nicht bemerkt. Ich empfehle Dir auf jeden Fall einen Sportmediziner zu konsultieren, da dieser in der Regel ein objektiveres Urteilsvermögen hat.

Wie wichtig ist ein spezielles Unterarmtraining für den Muskelaufbau. In meinem Fitnessstudio kann mir diesebezüglich keiner eine vernünftige Aussage machen?

In den wenigsten Fällen würde ich ein spezielles Unterarmtraining empfehlen, da die Unterarmmuskulatur bereits bei vielen anderen Muskelgruppen bzw.

Übungen mittrainiert werden und demzufolge leicht zum Übertraining neigen. In den meisten Fällen hält die Unterarmmuskulatur mit der Gesamtentwicklung Schritt.

Sollte man trotzdem zu Unterarmübungen greifen, sollte man sehr vorsichtig vorgehen, da ein hohes Verletzungsrisiko besteht. Entzündung der verschiedenen Bänder im Handgelenk zur Ursache haben.

Welche Übung ist nach deinem Ermessen zu unrecht in Vergessenheit geraten? Da könnte ich einige Übungen nennen, jedoch als erstes fallen mir die so genannten Überzüge mit einer Kurzhantel auf der Flachbank ein.

Diese Übung ist eine sehr effektive Übung um mehr Volumen in die Brust zu bekommen, ohne die Trizeps erheblich zu belasten.

Gerade als Abschlussübung beim Brusttraining finde ich diese Übung optimal. Ich trainiere seit reichlich einem Jahr im Studio um muskulöser zu werden.

Waran soll man da noch glauben? Was für ein Konzept empfiehlst du? Wie sollte ich die Muskelgruppen über die Woche verteilen?

Wann sollte ich einen trainingsfreien Tag einlegen? Das geschilderte Problem kenne ich aus meinen ersten Trainingsjahren. Ich habe auch wie besessen jede Bodybuilding-Zeitschrift gelesen und habe mir mit der Zeit dieselbe Frage gestellt.

Es ist für einen unerfahrenen Sportler recht schwer die richtigen Ratschläge herauszufinden. Ich gebe hier mal ein Grundkonzept, welches ich als sehr gut empfinde.

Das Hauptaugenmerk liegt im Muskelaufbau-Bereich. Pro Muskelgruppe würde ich Übungen machen, mit jeweils 3 intensiven Sätzen und Wiederholungen.

Davon sollten die letzten Wiederholungen Intensivwiederholungen leichte Unterstützung vom Trainingspartner sein. Wunder dich nicht, mein Trainingsplan basiert auf 8 Tage pro Zyklus, danach beginnt er wieder mit dem 1.

Die Wurzeln liegen im Wettkampf-Bodybuilding. Die Wettkampfsaison der Bodybilder beginnt im späten Frühjahr und endet im Spätsommer.

In dieser Zeit sind die Athleten in der Diät- bzw. Dieser Rhythmus hat sich auf die Fitnessszene übertragen und wird da in der Regel genauso zelebriert.

Dass man hier und da Abstriche machen muss, kann ich nachvollziehen, jedoch dass man für 5 Minuten Duschen 50 Cent extra zahlen muss, finde ich eine Frechheit.

Hat man als Fitnessstudio-Mitglied nicht das Recht kostenfrei zu duschen? Es ist doch ein Grundsatz der Hygiene, dass man sich nach dem Training duschen kann.

Sind das nicht unseriöse Zusatzkosten und demzufolge ein Kündigungsgrund? Es ist kein Kündigungsgrund, jedoch mit Sicherheit bedenklich, dass man auf diese Art und Weise Kosten mehr oder weniger versteckt.

Jeder muss natürlich selbst genau prüfen, was er für eine Leistung erhält und zu welchem Preis. Bedenklicher halte ich jedoch die Trainerleistung der Billigstudios.

Das ist reine Massenabfertigung ohne Sinn und Verstand. Sollte ein Arzt so arbeiten, dann würde man ihn verklagen.

Ich habe seit 4 Wochen die Intensität meines Fitnesstrainings deutlich erhöht um bessere Fortschritte beim Muskelaufbau zu erzielen. Seit dieser Änderung habe ich oft Kreislaufprobleme.

Gerade beim Bein- und Rückentraining ist dies oft der Fall. Was kann ich dagegen tun? Die Ursache für dieses Problem liegt in der Ernährung.

Ein intensiveres Training setzt natürlich auch deutlich mehr Energie voraus. Der Körper versucht mehr Kohlehydrate zu verstoffwechseln, um die höhere Leistung zu ermöglichen.

Wenn jedoch die Kohlehydratspeicher im Körper leer sind, entsteht ein Unterzuckerzustand, wodurch die eingangs erwähnten Kreislaufprobleme entstehen.

Um diese Probleme grundsätzlich zu vermeiden, sollte man vor dem Training eine angemessene Menge an Kohlenhydraten zu sich nehmen.

Auch zuckerhaltige Getränke wie z. Cola können beim Krafttraining Abhilfe schaffen. Sollte man beim Muskelaufbau grundsätzlich darauf verzichten?

Diese Frage kann man mit ja und mit nein beantworten. Entscheidend ist, dass man die richtigen Produkte auswählt und seine Ziele dabei nicht vergisst.

Mein Favorit in der Muskelaufbau-Phase war z. Das sind in der Muskelaufbau-Phase absolut annehmbare Werte, trotz 51g Fett.

Jeder kann sich über die genauen Nährwerte der verschiedenen Produkte auf den Webseiten der Anbieter informieren.

Ich bin im 4. Monat schwanger und gehe trotzdem sehr gern ins Fitnessstudio zum Training. Bis zum wievielten Monat kann ich dies ohne Bedenken tun?

Grundsätzlich ist gegen das Fitnesstraining in der Schwangerschaft nichts einzuwenden, insofern es keinerlei Probleme in der Schwangerschaft gibt.

Natürlich sollte immer ein Arzt das endgültige OK fürs Training geben. Viele Ärzte beführworten das Training sogar, da sich nicht zuletzt die Essgewohnheiten der werdenden Mama ändern.

Das Fitnesstraining muss natürlich mit fortlaufender Schwangerschaft in der Intensität reduziert werden. Es wird von Experten angenommen, dass das Kind sogar von einem angemessenen Fitnesstraining in seiner Entwicklung profitiert.

Ich rate jedoch jeder Frau ab dem 4. Eine hohe Priorität fürs Training sollte vor allem auch die Zeit nach einer Schwangerschaft haben, denn der deutlich geringere Energieumsatz im Körper kann die Figur nachhaltig negativ beeinträchtigen.

Es ist für die meisten Mütter schwer, ohne Fitnesstraining die überflüssige Pfunde wieder loszuwerden. Ich trainiere seit ein Paar Wochen mit einem Trainingspartner.

Leider sind wir verschiedener Auffassung wieviel Hilfestellung angebracht ist. Worauf muss man achten?

Ich möchte diese Frage am Beispiel Bankdrücken erklären: Zielsetzung einer jeden Übung ist es, möglichst den Muskel so zu reizen, dass er sich weiterentwickelt bzw.

Ein Trainingspartner hat zwei grundlegende Aufgaben. Er soll das Verletzungsrisiko minimieren, indem er die richtige Ausführung kontrolliert und evtl.

Zum anderen soll er den Bewegungsablauf angemessen unterstützen, sobald die Muskulatur dies nicht mehr im vollen Umfang selbst schaffen kann.

Dabei ist es wichtig, dass nicht zuviel Last von der Hilfestellung übernommen wird. Beim Bankdrücken liegt diese Hilfestellung vor allem im mittleren Bewegungsbereich.

Ein guter Trainingspartner stellt sich mit der Zeit auf die Kraftverhältnisse seines Trainingspartners ein. Hierfür benötigt man etwas Geduld und Routine.

Die Intensität des Trainings wird durch einen guten Trainingspartner um wenigstens Prozent erhöht. Und warum ist das so?

Der richtige Belastungswiderstand wird mit Hilfe der Pulsfrequenz überwacht. Als Richtlinie empfehle ich für eine effektive Fettverbrennung einen Pulsbereich zwischen und Herzschläge pro Minute.

Da der Körper bei höheren Belastungen deutlich weniger Energie aus den Fettzellen verwertet. Damit der Körperfettanteil sich spürbar verringert, sollte man wenigstens 3 bis 4 mal pro Woche 45 bis 60 Minuten Cardiotraining absolvieren.

Zusätzlich kann man den Fettstoffwechsel erhöhen, indem man alle 8 Minuten, für 2 Minuten die Belastung auf eine Pulsfrequenz von ca.

Der Stoffwechsel nutzt in den 2 Minuten Belastungserhöhung weiterhin Körperfett als Energielieferant. Ich überlege seit ein paar Monaten mit dem Fitnesstraining anzufangen.

Von Seiten meiner Figur habe ich es zwar nicht unbedingt nötig, jedoch soll ja auch alles gut in Form bleiben. Jetzt habe ich Bedenken, dass ich zu viel Muskulatur durch das Training aufbauen könnte und nicht mehr fraulich aussehe.

Sind meine Bedenken berechtigt? Dies ist genetisch so veranlagt. Natürlich muss jeder Trainingsplan individuell ausgearbeitet und auf die gewünschten Ziele und körperlichen Grundvoraussetzungen bemessen sein.

Von irgendwelchen Standarttrainingsplänen würde ich jedoch grundsätzlich abraten. Leider habe ich jahrelang mein Beintraining vernachlässigt, was nun ersichtlich ist.

Im Fitnessstudio werde ich auch ständig darauf angesprochen. Trotz Trainingumstellung hat sich jedoch im letzten halben Jahr nicht viel getan.

Irgendwie wollen meine Beine nicht wachsen. Was kann ich tun? Gibt es Übungen die dieses Problem lösen? Muss ich mehrmals pro Woche Beine trainieren?

Robert - XXL Dresden, Mit dem Problem sehen sich viele konfrontiert und die Ursache liegt meistens darin, dass das Beintraining sehr anstrengend ist und die Erfolge oft nicht so schnell ersichtlich sind.

Hierfür eignet sich meines Erachtens der Montag am besten, weil an diesem Tag die Motivation oft am höchsten ist. Die beste Übung bzw. Maschine für massive Beine, ist unbestritten die Squat-Press von Cybex.

Diese Maschine ist eine spezielle Beinpresse, welche einen sehr intensiven Wachstumsanreiz auf die Beinmuskulatur erzielt und dies nicht nur auf die Quadrizeps Beinstrecker-Muskulatur sondern auch auf die Beinbizeps Beinbeuger-Muskulatur.

Der Bewegungsradius ist nicht geradlinig, wie bei herkömmlichen Beinpressen, sondern bogenförmig. Dies minimiert zusätzlich die Kniebelastung um ein vielfaches.

Da diese Squat-Press in Deutschland nur in sehr wenigen Fitnessstudios vorhanden ist, empfehle ich sehr tiefe Frontkniebeuge als Alternative.

Danach wird der Wachstumsanreiz durch Sätze Beinstrecken und Beinbeugen intensiviert. Beide Übungen sollten ebenfalls sehr intensiv und konzentriert ausgeführt werden.

Auf keinem Fall sollten die Wiederholungen schwungvoll ausgeführt werden. Wenn ein Trainingspartner vorhanden ist, sollte er bei den letzten 2 Wiederholungen eine leichte Unterstützung geben, jedoch nicht die Last erheblich reduzieren.

Dieses Training wird wöchentlich absolviert. Am Folgetag sollte unbedingt ein trainingsfreier Tag eingeräumt werden. Ich arbeite im Drei-Schichtsystem und muss aus diesem Grunde zu sehr unterschiedlichen Zeiten mein Fitnesstraining absolvieren.

Leider musste ich feststellen, dass die Trainingsleistung bereits am Tage sehr unterschiedlich ist, jedoch am stärksten spüre ich dies nach 23 Uhr, wo ich kein vernünftiges Training mehr zustande bekomme.

Ist dies ein allgemeines Problem oder geht dass nur mir so? Die Frage kann man sehr einfach beantworten: Wenn wir unserem Körper in den Nachtstunden hohe Leistungen abverlangen, stellt dass für ihn eine extreme Belastung dar.

Nicht ohne Grund gibt es im Arbeitsleben für Nachtarbeit eine zusätzliche Entlohnung. Unser Körper braucht die Regeneration in der Nacht.

Nicht ohne Grund sind Fitnessanlagen nachts, wenn Sie denn so spät noch geöffnet haben, absolut leer. Es geht wirklich nur um ein zusätzliches Verkaufsargument, wenn Fitnessstudios in der Nacht öffnen.

Mit effektiven Trainingszeiten hat dass nichts zu tun. Ich bin aber wirklich kläglich daran gescheitert. Ich rate jedem, der bis spät am Abend arbeitet, seinen Tagesablauf so zu organisieren, dass er bereits vor der Arbeit sein Training absolviert.

Mich begleiten seit Monaten stechende Schmerzen im Ellenbogen. Übungen wie Bankdrücken, Frenchpress und Trizepdrücken sind für mich gar nicht mehr machbar.

Ich war bereits beim Arzt, jedoch hat er mir nur entzündungshemmende Tabletten verschrieben und mir empfohlen, 8 Wochen aufs Training zu verzichten.

Die Tabletten haben zwar zu Beginn geholfen, jedoch sind die Schmerzen bereits nach 3 Wochen wieder aufgetreten. Woran kanns liegen, was sollte ich tun?

Das kommt bei Fitness- und Bodybuilding-Athleten recht oft vor. Beim Drücken des Gewichts haben viele Leute das Problem, dass die Trizepssehne am Ellenbogengelenk reibt, was oft eine Entzündung der Sehne verursacht.

Ich kann nur anraten, schon bei leichten Schmerzen der Sehne auf die Frenchpress-Übung zu verzichten. Dabei ist darauf zu achten, dass die Ellenbogen sich auf der Höhe der Schläfen am Kopf befinden.

Die genaue Ausführung sollte jeder Fitnesstrainer vorführen können. In Deinem Fall, Frank, rate ich Dir, in den nächsten 8 Wochen keine Trizeps-Übungen, kein Bankdrücken und auch kein Kurzhanteldrücken auszuführen, damit sich die Trizepssehne erholen kann.

In Absprache Deines Arztes, solltest Du evt. Ich bin 35 Jahre, recht dünn und möchte zu gern ordentlich Muskulatur aufbauen. Ist es in meinem Alter überhaupt machbar ca.

Welche Grundvorrausetzungen muss man erfüllen? Das Alter spielt eine untergeordnete Rolle. Man kann auch mit 50 Jahren noch ohne Probleme Muskulatur aufbauen.

Die Grundvorrausetzungen sind vor allem: Wer sich wirklich ernsthaft bemüht, kann bereits im ersten Trainingsjahr kg an Muskelmasse zunehmen.

Im Temple Gym zeigen wir es tagtäglich mit Erfolg, wie es geht. Mein Ziel ist es seit Beginn von 62 kg Körpergewicht auf 52 kg zu kommen.

Irgendwie hab ich es nicht geschafft von meinem Gewicht runterzukommen. Zurzeit wiege ich 59 kg, womit ich alles andere als zufrieden bin.

Mein Fitnesstrainer hat mir geraten mein Kreistraining unverändert beizubehalten und dafür meine Ernährung um die Hälfte zu reduzieren.

Damit komme ich jedoch nicht klar, da ich zuvor schon sehr kleine Mahlzeiten gegessen habe. Was kann ich noch tun, um mein Körpergewicht zu reduzieren?

Um in Deinem Fall ein optimales Trainings- und Ernährungskonzept zu erstellen, wären mehr Informationen notwendig.

Als Eckdaten kann man jedoch folgendes zusammenfassen: Die Zeitspanne zwischen den Mahlzeiten muss Stunden betragen. Jede Mahlzeit sollte aus ca.

Butter solltest Du weitgehend meiden. Verwende möglichst nur pflanzliche Fette z. Dein Training sollte aus Minuten Fettverbrennung im Cardiobereich z.

Rad, Crosstrainer, Laufband bestehen, der Pulsbereich sollte zwischen und Herzschlägen pro Minute befinden. Dies sollte in ca. Ich trainiere seit mehreren Jahren und kämpfe um jedes kg Muskelmasse verbissen.

Immer zur Urlaubszeit stehe ich dann vor dem gleichen Problem. Wie kann ich im Urlaub verhindern, dass ich an Muskelmasse verliere?

Mit diesem Problem sehen sich wirklich viele Leute konfrontiert und die Lösung ist denkbar einfach. Es ist leider eine Wunschvorstellung im Urlaub gutes Fitnessstudio vorzufinden um genauso weiterzutrainieren wie zuhause.

Dies ist jedoch auch nicht notwendig. Man sollte den Urlaub als Regenerationsphase nutzen und aufs Training verzichten.

Viel wichtiger ist es, sich in dieser Zeit weiterhin hochwertig und umfangreich zu ernähren und in dieser Zeit deutlich mehr zu schlafen, um die Regenerationszeit optimal zu nutzen.

Natürlich wird die Trainingsleistung nach dem Urlaub etwas geringer sein, jedoch gleicht sich dies in den ersten 5 Trainingseinheiten wieder aus.

Kann man trotz solcher Ziele jede Woche auf Partys gehen oder sollte ich darauf verzichten? Und wie schaut es mit dem Alkohol aus?

Es ist natürlich wichtig, dass sich der Körper am Folgetag vollständig regenerieren kann und seinen nötigen Schlaf und eine vernünftige Ernährung bekommt.

Was den Genuss von Alkohol angeht, so sollte man sich schon etwas einschränken, um die Regenerationsphase nicht zu sehr zu erschweren. Ich trainiere seit ca.

Woran erkenne ich ein gutes Fitnessstudio? Worauf muss ich achten? Das beste Zeichen für ein gutes Fitnessstudio sind zufriedene Mitglieder.

Man sollte sich auf keinem Fall vom ersten Eindruck trügen lassen und immer andere Studiomitglieder nach ihren Erfahrungen im Fitnessstudio befragen.

Dabei sollte man z. Werden verschieden Trainingskonzepte mit mir ausgetestet? Wie viel Zeit haben die Trainer für die Mitglieder? Wie ist die allgemeine Stimmung im Fitness-Studio?

Aber auch der eigene kritische Eindruck ist wichtig. Meist ist solch ein Studio über seinen besten Jahren hinaus. Was auch eine wichtige Rolle spielt, ist der Druck den Trainer ausüben, wenn es zum Abschluss einer Mitgliedschaft geht.

Studios die von sich und ihrer Leistung überzeugt sind, verzichten darauf, unnötig Druck auszuüben.

Man sollte sich dessen bewusst sein, dass es kein gesetzliches Rücktrittsrecht von Fitnessverträgen gibt. Ist die Mitgliedschaft flexibel gestaltet oder muss ich für Sachen oder Leistungen zahlen, die ich nicht wirklich nutze z.

Eine unverbindliche Testphase ist immer ratsam und ermöglicht einen objektiveren Eindruck vom jeweiligen Fitnessstudio.

Ich kann von mir sagen, dass ich mein Krafttraining mit sehr viel Motivation absolviere. Wie viele Trainingseinheiten pro Woche sind das Maximum was ich absolvieren sollte?

Die besten Ergebnisse beim Krafttraining bzw. Muskelaufbau erzielt man meiner Erfahrung nach, indem man nach jeder Trainingseinheit einen Tag Pause einlegt.

Gerade Leute die in ihrem Alltag sehr gefordert sind, sollten diesen Pausentag einhalten. Dabei steht nicht nur körperlich schwere Arbeit im Focus, sondern auch starke geistige Belastung kann den Regenerationsprozess deutlich verlangsamen.

Sicherlich gibt es Menschen die ihren Alltag ganz auf ihr Training abstimmen und dadurch eine deutlich bessere Regeneration haben.

Jedoch würde ich in diesem Fall auch nicht mehr als zwei aufeinander folgende Trainingstage absolvieren, gefolgt von einem Tag Trainingspause.

Welches Nahrungsergänzungsmittel bringt die besten Erfolge beim Muskelaufbau und der Kraftsteigerung? Kreapektin von SRS ist nach wie vor die Nr.

Kreapektin hat zwei Grundbausteine die es so erfolgreich machen. Dadurch kann deutlich mehr Kreatin verstoffwechselt werden. Die Hauptarbeit leistet jedoch das Amylopektin.

Aber mit welchen Erfolgen ist zu rechnen: Durchschnittlich nimmt man ca. Beiläufig findet eine heftige Kraftsteigerung statt.

Ich persönlich kenne kein Produkt, was solch super Erfolge bringt wie Kreapektin. Woran erkenne ich, wenn ich mich im so genanten Übertraining befinde und was kann ich dagegen tun?

Die Symptome für Übertraining sind sehr leicht zu erkennen. Die häufigsten Anzeichen sind: Absolviert man pro Woche zwei oder noch mehr Trainingseinheiten und es treffen mehrere der genanten Symptome zu, kann man davon ausgehen, dass man sich im Übertraining befindet.

In diesem Fall empfehle ich, dass man seinen Alltag überdenkt, ob man gewisse Stress- bzw. Auch die Trainingsintensität sollte mit einem erfahrenen Trainer überdacht und evt.

Eine weitere Ursache können zu kurze Schlafphasen sein. Diese sollten möglichst Stunden pro Tag umfassen. Aber auch die Ernährung spielt oft eine wesentliche Rolle.

Nimmt man zu wenig Kohlenhydrate zu sich, zeigen sich ebenfalls häufig Symptome des Übertrainings. Am besten ist es, wenn man 1 Woche Trainingspause einlegt und selbstkritisch seinen Alltag überdenkt und vernünftig einteilt, sowie das Training und evt.

Begonnen habe ich mit einem Einsteiger-Kreistraining. Meine Freundin trainiert in einem anderen Fitnessstudio mit einem Zirkeltrainingsprogramm, was noch effektiver sein soll.

Ist dem wirklich so? Meiner Erfahrung nach stimmt dies nicht. Der Sinn und Zweck dieser Zirkeltrainingsprogramme ist es, neue Verkaufsargumente und demzufolge höhere Umsätze zu erzielen.

Mann muss wissen, dass die Nutzung dieser 10 bis 12 Trainingsgeräte mit Zusatzkosten von Euro pro Monat und Mitglied verbunden ist, wodurch die Mitgliedsbeiträge schnell 60 Euro und mehr erreichen.

Des Weiteren sehe ich persönlich keinen Sinn darin, dass simple Fahrradergometer in diesem Zirkeltraining enthalten sind.

Fahrradergometer stehen in jedem Cardiobereich und können somit viel zielgerichteter eingesetzt werden.

Jeder erfahrene Fitnesstrainer stellt in wenigen Minuten ein effektiveres und individuelleres Trainingsprogramm zusammen, als dieses Zirkeltraingskonzept darstellt.

Jedoch jeder erfahrene und gewissenhafte Studiobetreiber bleibt bei den bewährten und effektiven Trainingsprogrammen und erspart seinen Mitgliedern unnötige Zusatzkosten.

Ich ernähre mich sehr bewusst und achte darauf keine versteckten Zuckerbestandteile zu mir zu nehmen. Leider ist dadurch meine Ernährung sehr einseitig geworden.

Es gibt viele Nahrungsmittel die auch eine sehr bewusste Ernährung aufwerten können. Ein schönes Beispiel sind hierfür z. Diese haben sehr wenige Kalorien ca.

Zurzeit beträgt mein Körpergewicht 85 kg. Vielmehr ist es dafür gedacht, den Körper während dem Training mit schnell verfügbaren Aminosäuren zu versorgen.

Du wirst dieses Ziel besser in kleinen Schritten erreichen können. Man sollte stets bedenken, dass es nicht entscheidend ist wie viel man in sich "hineinstopft", sondern was und wieviel der Körper davon verwerten kann.

Ich sehe bei einigen Jungs in unserem Studio, dass Sie Trainingsgürtel verwenden. Ist dies ratsam und welchen Vorteil hat man damit?

He marched against Lambert of Spoleto, but was struck by paralysis and obliged to return to Bavaria [89].

Regino records the death " III Kal Dec " of " Arnulfus imperator " and his burial " in Odingas ubi et pater eius tumulatus est " [90]. No indication has been found about the origin of Oda.

Settipani suggests that she may have been related to the future Konrad I King of Germany [94]. However, he bases this on King Arnulf's charter dated 19 May in which he names " Chonradi…comitis et nepotis nostri " [95].

However, a relationship between Arnulf and Konrad can be identified through Konrad's mother, who was the niece of King Arnulf's paternal grandmother, without the need to speculate on a connection through Queen Oda.

It has been assumed that the Zwentibold named in this charter was the illegitimate son of King Arnulf but this is not certain. In addition, the charter in question specifies no relationship between the emperor and Zwentibold, in contrast to the explicitly mentioned more remote relationship between the former and Markgraf Luitpold.

The name of King Arnulf's third mistress is not known. The Annales Fuldenses record the birth in of Arnulf's son " nomine avi sui Hludowicum " [].

Reuter highlights that charters were issued in the name of King Ludwig as if he was adult, although they were counter-signed by many more magnates acting as "intervenors" than had previously been usual [].

He fought unsuccessfully against the invasion of the Magyars. The Annales Lobienses record the death in of " Loduwicus rex, filius Arnulfi " [].

Herimannus records the death in of " Ludowicus rex adolescens " and his burial in Regensburg []. King Arnulf had one illegitimate son by [Mistress 1 ]: Regino records that, when Arnulf King of the East Franks granted " ducatum Behemensium " to " Zuendiboldo Marabensium Sclavorum regi ", his son was baptised with " nomine suo Zuendibold " [].

Regino records that " Arnolfi Zvendiboldo filio " was given the honours of " Megingaudi comitis " in [].

His position in Lotharingia was seriously weakened after when he quarrelled with Graf Reginar who was one of his main supporters [].

He was deposed on the death of his father in and replaced by his legitimate half-brother. He was killed trying to recapture his kingdom [].

Regino specifies that " Zuantibold " was killed in battle " Id Aug " by " comitibus Stephano, Gerardo et Matfriedo circa Mosam " [].

Regino records the marriage in of " Ottonem comitem…filiam Odam " and King Zwentibold []. Jackman speculates that Oda must have been born in [], although this appears to be designed to fit with his theory about Oda's supposed third marriage [].

Regino records that " Gerhard comes " married " Odam uxorem Zuendiboldi regis " after killing her first husband in battle in [].

Jackman speculates on this possible third marriage for onomastic reasons, the name of Eberhard's supposed daughter Ingeltrud being that of Oda's maternal grandmother [].

This is the only reference to any children of King Zwentibold. Their existence is improbable, especially given the speculative birth date shown above of Oda wife of Zwentibold, although it is possible that they were illegitimate.

Their names are not, however, typical of the late 9th century in Germany and their absence from any contemporaneous primary sources is surprising if they did exist, considering the number of references to King Zwentibold himself.

The same comments apply to this daughter as the alleged daughters Benedicta and Cäcilie. King Arnulf had one illegitimate daughter by Mistress 2: The Annales Fuldenses records in that " Engilscalcus iuvenili audatia vir " later " rapta de concubina filia regis " [].

The passage does not name the king's daughter. Ellinrat is the only daughter who is named elsewhere, but the text may refer to an otherwise unknown daughter of Emperor Arnulf.

King Arnulf had one illegitimate son by Mistress 3: He was appointed sub-king in Italy after his father's return to Germany in [].

Regino records that " Chuonradus comes " sent " filium suum Chuonradum " against " Gerardum et fratrem eius Matfridum " in []. Graf im Hessengau Graf im Keldachgau He was opposed by his brother-in-law Erchanger who rebelled in , and by Arnulf Duke of Bavaria [].

He was wounded on an expedition against Duke Arnulf, which led to his death []. On his deathbed he nominated Heinrich of Saxony as his successor as king of Germany [].

The necrology of Fulda records the death in of " Cuonradus rex " []. Regino records the death of " Chuonradus rex " in and his burial in Fulda monastery [].

Thietmar records his death on 19 Oct, and his " funeral obsequies…at Weilburg " []. The Annalista Saxo records that "s epultus est in civitate sua Wilinaburh " [].

Thietmar records that Heinrich was " born of the noble lineage of Otto and Hadwig " []. According to the Annalista Saxo, he was son of the unnamed sister of Adalbert [Babenberg], with whom he and his brothers fought against the Konradiner family, his complete parentage being recorded in a later passage [].

King Heinrich re-established Saxon domination over the Slavs after successful campaigns against the Hevelli in and against the Daleminzi and Bohemians in [].

Widukind records that he defeated t he Magyars at the battle of Riade near Merseburg in , their first major setback in their raids on western Europe [].

The necrology of Fulda records the death " Kal Iul " of " Heinrih rex " []. Thietmar records the death of King Heinrich 2 Jul at Memleben " in the…sixtieth year of his life " and his burial at Quedlinburg " which he himself had constructed from the ground up " [].

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "2 Jul" of " Heinricus rex pater magni Oddonis " []. Thietmar names Hatheburg as daughter of " lord Erwin ", specifying that she was widowed without naming her first husband , when recording her marriage to Heinrich [].

She had become a nun after the death of her first husband, which presumably provided the reason for " the outrage perpetrated through this marriage " and the basis for the couple's separation which is not explicitly expressed as such by Thietmar [].

Widukind names " Mahthilda " as wife of King Heinrich, also naming her father and three brothers []. Thietmar names Mathilde as daughter of " Dietrich and Reinhild " when recording her marriage to Heinrich, specifying the was " a descendant of the lineage of King Widukind " [].

Her alleged descent from Widukind is also referred to in the Vita Mahthildis []. Thietmar records that Quedlinburg was bestowed on Mathilde as part of her dower 16 Sep [] , and that she established the convent there thirty days after the death of her husband [].

She played an active part in encouraging the rebellion of her son Heinrich in and was included in the reconciliation of [].

Lay Abbess of Nivelles. Thietmar records the death of Queen Mathilde on 14 Mar, without specifying the year [].

The necrology of Fulda records the death " 2 Id Mar " of " Mahthild regina " []. Widukind names " Thancmari " as son of King Heinrich, when recording his rebellion against King Otto, and in a later passage names his mother [].

Thietmar records the birth of " Tammo " []. He was considered illegitimate on the basis that his mother had taken the veil before her second marriage, which was therefore invalid [].

Thietmar records the rebellion of " Tammo son of the king and Liudgard ", and that Thankmar claimed the inheritance of Siegfried Graf [von Merseburg], who was his mother's first cousin.

He was besieged in Eresburg, forced into the church of St Peter where he was killed 28 Jul by Maginzo before the altar, his murderer being punished with a cruel death by the king " later, in the second year of his reign " [].

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "28 Jul" of " Thancmar frater magni Oddonis " []. The number and names of these children appear definitive apart from any who died in infancy as shown by a list of names in the Libri Confraternitatum Sancti Galli which sets out in order " Heinrich, Mathilt, Otto, Heinrich, Prun, Kerbrich, Adawi, Kysilbref ", no doubt referring to King Heinrich, his wife, children and son-in-law [].

Associate King of Germany, with his father, in Liutprand states that the wife of " Gislebertum Lotharingorum ducem " was " regis sororem " [].

Flodoard names her " Gerbergam " when recording her second marriage []. Her first husband had been a rival of King Heinrich I and maybe planned to establish himself as independent ruler in Lotharingia in [].

As the marriage coincided with Giselbert being created dux , it was presumably arranged to confirm Giselbert's submission to King Heinrich.

King Louis married Gerberga without the permission of her brother Otto I King of Germany, probably to increase his hold on Lotharingia ruled by her first husband.

An educated person, she commissioned from Adso of Moutier-en-Der the De ortu et tempore antichristi []. Her second husband gave her the abbey of Notre-Dame de Laon in , taken from his mother on her second marriage.

Abbess of Notre Dame de Soissons in []. Thietmar records that he was captured by Eberhard Duke of Franconia in and " held in chains ".

He rebelled against his brother King Otto in and took part in a campaign of pillaging along the Rhine, joined by Eberhard ex-Duke of Franconia and Giselbert Duke of Lotharingia [Hainaut] [].

They were defeated at Birten and Andernach []. Thietmar records that he was expelled from Regensburg by his nephew Liudolf Duke of Swabia, during the course of the latter's rebellion against his father, but restored by his brother King Otto in [] [].

Regino records the death of " Heinricus frater regis " in []. The necrology of Fulda records the death " Kal Nov " of " Heinrichus dux " [].

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "1 Nov" of " Heinricus dux avus imperatoris Heinrici " [].

However, he and subsequent emperors named Heinrich were normally referred to by the ordinal number attached to them as kings of Germany even after their imperial coronations.

Rodulfus Glaber names " sororem [primis Ottonis] Haduidem " as wife of " Hugo dux Francorum cognomento Magnus " [].

Flodoard refers to " sororem Othonis regis Transfhenensis, filiam Heinrici " as the wife of " Hugo princeps, filius Roberti ", without naming her, recording the marriage in [].

Chancellor of Germany Archbishop of Köln According to Thietmar, Archbishop Bruno plotted against his brother, offering the crown of Germany to his brother-in-law Hugues "le Grand", but repented of his scheme and was forgiven by King Otto [].

Thietmar records the death of Archbishop Bruno on 11 Oct " in the thirteenth year after his ordination " [].

The precise relationships between the following individuals and Emperor Otto I have not been identified.

In each case, the primary sources report an indirect family relationship either between these persons, or members of their families, and the emperor.

The connection is not necessarily through the agnatic side: The Gesta Treverorum records that " Rubertus archiepiscopus " came from " regno quod Lotharingium vocatur " adding that " soror eius imperatori in matrimonio iuncta fuit " [].

The existence of a relationship between this family and the Ottonian emperors is confirmed by the Vita Richardi abbatis S Vidoni Virdunensis which names " comes Lietardus, Ottonis imperator consanguineus " [].

Bishop of Verdun After his accession, the Bohemians and the Abotrites withheld payment of tribute. Otto's half-brother Thankmar rebelled in Saxony with other magnates dissatisfied with the king's distribution of offices.

Thietmar records that he founded the monastery of Magdeburg later Magdeburg Cathedral , encouraged by his first wife, to which the relics of St Innocent were brought [].

He sent armed forces which were unsuccessful in taking reprisals against Rouen in , after members of the local nobility had arranged the escape of Richard I Comte [de Normandie] from his captivity by Louis IV King of the West Franks, his brother-in-law, a nepos unidentified of King Otto being killed in the battle [].

Thietmar records that he invaded Italy in , using the ill-treatment of his future second wife as an excuse, entered Pavia 23 Sep and proclaimed himself king of Italy.

His predecessor Berengario di Ivrea proposed himself as Otto's viceroy in Italy, which was accepted by the Council of Augsburg in Aug King Otto's son Liudolf rebelled in , but was pardoned in Thietmar records that King Otto defeated the Magyars in battle at Lechfeld near Augsburg in [] , which marked the end of their marauding in Europe.

King Otto forced Berengario's retreat to the fortress of San Leo near Montefeltro , finally capturing him in The necrology of Fulda records the death " Non Mai " of " Otto imp " [].

Thietmar records his death at Memleben on 7 May in the thirty-eighth year after his consecration and his burial at Magdeburg [].

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "7 May" of " Otto maior magnus imperator " []. The Book of Hyde names " Edgitham et Elgimam " as fifth and sixth of the six daughters of King Eadweard by his first wife " Elfelmi comitis filia Elfleda ", specifying that they were both sent to " Henrico Alemanorum imperatori " and that the former married " filio sui Othoni " [].

Thietmar names " Edith…daughter of King Edmund of England " when recording her marriage during the lifetime of Otto's father, in a later passage stating that she urged her husband to begin establishing the city of Magdeburg [].

Thietmar records her death 26 Jan " in the eleventh year " of the reign of her husband, after 19 years of marriage, and her place of burial [].

Luitprand names " Adelegidam " daughter of Rudolf and Berta, when recording her marriage to " regi Lothario " []. Her birth date range is estimated from having given birth to one child by her first marriage before the death of her husband in She claimed the kingdom of Italy on the death of her husband, as the daughter of one of the rival claimants for the throne earlier in the century.

Willa, wife of Berengario di Ivrea who had been proclaimed king at Pavia 15 Dec , ordered Adelais's imprisonment at Como 20 Apr and " afflicted her with imprisonment and hunger " according to Thietmar [].

Otto I King of Germany used her ill-treatment as an excuse to invade Italy in Sep , although Adelais had succeeded in escaping 20 Aug to Reggio [].

King Otto entered Pavia 23 Sep , proclaimed himself king of Italy, and married Adelais as her second husband. The Annalista Saxo records " Adelheidam reginam " as " coniuge rege Lothario " when she married Otto [].

Flodoard refers to " uxorem quoque Lotharii regis defuncti, filii Hugonis, sororem Chonradi regis " when recording her second marriage [].

Thietmar records that she was crowned empress at Rome with her husband 2 Feb []. Thietmar records that she replaced her daughter-in-law as regent for her grandson King Otto III in [].

The necrology of Fulda records the death " 17 Kal Ian " of " Adalheid imperatrix " []. The primary source which confirms her parentage has not yet been identified.

She was a " captured Slavic noblewoman " according to Thietmar, who gives neither her name nor her parentage [].

His birth date is estimate from Widukind stating that he " was still a tender youth no more than seventeen years of age " when his mother died [].

His father installed him as Duke of Swabia in , in succession to Liudolf's father-in-law []. Thietmar records that he rebelled against his father, together with his brother-in-law Konrad Duke of Lotharingia, was besieged at Mainz, but escaped to capture Regensburg and expel his uncle Heinrich Duke of Bavaria [].

Thietmar also records that his father deposed him in as Duke of Swabia, but ultimately forgave his rebellion []. His father sent him to Italy to control Berengario di Ivrea, Viceroy in Italy, who was attempting to reassert his independence, but Liudolf died there of a fever.

Thietmar places a different slant on the event, stating that Liudolf had once more rebelled against his father and left for Italy [].

Thietmar records the death of Liudolf in Italy 6 Sep, " after scarcely a year " following his departure from his homeland, but does not specify the year [].

The necrology of Lüneburg records the death "6 Sep" of " Liuidolfus regis filius " []. Regino specifies that he died in Italy and was buried in Mainz St Alban [].

Widukind names " ducis Herimanni filiam Idam " as wife of Liudolf []. Regino records the marriage of " filiam Herimanni ducis " and " Liutolfus filius regis " in [].

Regino records the birth of " Mathildis filia Liutolfo " at the end of []. Abbess of Essen []. Regino records the birth of " Liutolfo filius Otto " in [].

He campaigned in Italy with his uncle Emperor Otto: The death of " Otto dux egregius, filius Liudolfi, fratruelis Ottonis secundi ", soon after this defeat, is recorded in the Annalista Saxo [].

He is presumably the " Otto dux Sueuorum " whose death is recorded " 1 Nov " in The necrology of Merseburg []. Widukind records her marriage to " Conrado " [].

According to Thietmar, Liutgard was accused by " a certain Cono " of adultery but her name was cleared after Graf Burkhard fought her accuser in combat in her name [].

Regino records the death of " Liutgarda filia regis " in []. The necrology of Merseburg records the death "18 Nov" of " Liudgard filia imperatoris Ottonis " [].

Thietmar records her burial in "the church of…Alban at Mainz" []. He rebelled against his father-in-law, together with his brother-in-law Liudolf Duke of Swabia, but was ultimately forgiven although deposed as Duke of Lotharingia.

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "7 Apr" of " Heinricus filius Oddonis regis " []. Although the year is not indicated, Heinrich's years of birth and death must be approximately as estimated here in view of the tight chronology of the births of King Otto's children.

She is referred to as " sorore imperatoris abbatissa Quidelingeburgensi ", but not named, when the Annalista Saxo records her presence with her brother and his wife celebrating Christmas at Rome in [].

She is named " Machtilda Quidelingeburgensi abbatissa " in a later passage []. Thietmar records that Emperor Otto II bequeathed one quarter of his treasure to his sister Mathilde " who presided over the abbey at Quedlinburg " [].

Regino records the birth of " Otto filius regis " at the end of []. He was crowned associate Emperor 25 Dec at Rome []. On his accession, he claimed Byzantium's possessions in Italy as part of his wife's dowry.

His chancery adopted the title " imperator Romanorum augustus " in []. After holding court at Verona, where his son was elected associate king, Otto II left for Rome where he died of malaria [].

Her name is not given in the document. It is unlikely, given the date of the marriage of Emperor Nikeforos Fokas and Theofano in that any daughter of theirs would have been considered marriageable in the late s by Emperor Otto.

It is therefore likely that the document was prepared before Luitprand's visit, in ignorance of the details of the emperor's family members.

The identity of the proposed bride is therefore not certain. Prior to Luitprand's arrival in Constantinople, Emperor Nikephoros was murdered.

According to Thietmar, his successor Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes sent his niece Theofano back to Germany " not the desired maiden…accompanied by a splendid entourage and magnificent gifts " [].

Western sources consistently refer to Theofano as " neptis " of Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes, for example the charter dated 14 Apr under which " Otto…imperator augustus " granted property to " Theophanu, Iohannis Constantinopolitani imperatoris neptim " [].

Her exact relationship to Emperor Ioannes Tzimiskes is unknown. It is possible that she was a relative of the emperor's wife rather than of the emperor himself.

Davids suggests that she was the daughter of Konstantinos Skleros and his wife Sofia [] , who was probably the sister of the first wife of Emperor Ioannes.

An indication that this may be correct is that Theofano's second daughter was named Sophie, normal Byzantine practice being to name the first daughter after the paternal grandmother and the second after the maternal grandmother [].

It also appears to be chronologically sustainable. However, too little is known about the families of Emperor Ioannes and his wife to propose this as the only plausible hypothesis, especially as the word " neptis " could cover a wide variety of relationships.

In addition, it cannot even be assumed that the wife of Konstantinos Skleros was the only individual named Sofia in these families at the time.

She was regent during the minority of her son Thietmar records the death of Empress Theofano at Nijmegen on 15 Jun and her place of burial []. The necrology of Merseburg records the death "15 Jun" of " Theophanu imperatrix " [].

The birth of a daughter of " Ottoni inperatori et Theophanu auguste…quam nominee matris sue imperatricis insignivit " is recorded in the Annalista Saxo in [] , but this appears incorrect assuming that the approximate birth dates of her sisters Sophie and Mathilde are correct and that Adelheid was her parents' oldest daughter as recorded by Thietmar, who also confirmed that she became a nun at Quedlinburg [].

She succeeded her paternal aunt as abbess of Quedlinburg in , according to Thietmar who in one part of the text calls Adelheid sister of her predecessor Mathilde and in another part sister of Otto III [].

Abbess of Gernrode and Verden , and Gandersheim The Vita Godehardi names " Sophia , secundi imperatoris Ottonis filia " when recording that she was brought up at Gandersheim [].

Thietmar records that Sophie was Theofano's second daughter, and that she became a nun at Gandersheim []. Canoness at Gandersheim, elected abbess in , installed The Annalista Saxo records the death of " domna Sophia…Gandersheimensis abbatissa " in , specifying that she was sister of " Adelheit Quidilingeburgensis abbatissa " [].

Thietmar records that " Mathilde the emperor's sister married Ezzo, who was the son of Hermann the count palatine ", commenting that " this displeased many " [].

Piligrim Archbishop of Köln confirmed the donation of " allodium suum in Brunwilre " to the abbey of St Nicholas made by " Erenfridus comes palatinus […et frater eius comes Hecelinus]…cum coniuge sua domna Mathilde " by charter dated 10 Oct [].

The Annales Brunwilarenses record the death in of " domna nostra Mathilda " []. The primary source which records the existence of this daughter has not so far been identified.

His cousin Duke Heinrich "der Zänker" rebelled against him, gained support in Bavaria, but was obliged to concede at Rohr 29 Jun [].

His accession was confirmed at Quedlinburg at Easter []. He ruled through the regency of his mother until her death in , and under that of his paternal grandmother until Sep , when he was declared of age at Sohlingen [].

Crowned Emperor at Rome 21 May He died of a fever, probably smallpox. Thietmar records the death of the emperor on 24 Jan at Paterno and his burial at Aachen [].

No corroborative sources have been identified, and the report appears unlikely, not only because of what must have been an evident age difference between the parties but also the unlikelihood that the young emperor would appear to condone his enemy's treachery by marrying his widow.

She was named as deceased in a document dated [] , although it remains to be clarified whether this is a reference to Theodora, widow of Crescentius [II]'s older brother Ioannes [I] Crescentius.

Thietmar records that " Helena from the Greeks " who later married " the king of the Russians Vladimir " had formerly been betrothed to Otto III " but was then denied to him through fraud and cunning " [].

This betrothal is unlikely or the report of it at best confused. The marriage of Anna of Byzantium, wife of Grand Prince Vladimir, took place in and there is no indication in other sources of her earlier betrothal to Otto.

The Historia Welforum names " filia Ottonis magnis imperatoris…Richlint " as wife of " Couno comes " []. She may be " domna Rilint " from whom " Heinricus…rex " acquired property " in Halla in pago Salzburcgouui in comitatu Thiemonis comitis ", which he donated to the bishopric of Bamberg by charter dated 1 Nov [].

Jackman [] identifies her as daughter of Liudolf [of Saxony] Duke of Swabia, son of Emperor Otto I, but the question is not without controversy.

In view of the clear statement in the Historia Welforum and the spurious charter, it has been decided to show her here as the child of Emperor Otto I despite the unreliability of these sources, but in square brackets to indicate doubt.

If this is correct, she must presumably have been the child of the emperor's second marriage, unless she was illegitimate.

Thietmar names Wilhelm as " the offspring of a captured Slavic noblewoman and the king " []. The Annales Quedlinburgensis record the installation of " Willihelmus filius regis " as Archbishop of Mainz in [].

Thietmar records the death of Wilhelm Archbishop of Mainz at Rottleberode on 2 Mar, in the same year as Queen Mathilde died in []. King Otto had one possible illegitimate son by an unknown mistress: No other reference to this Sicco has been identified.

Two other nobleman named Siegfried have been identified at the time: In addition, in the case of Comte Siegfried, he would have been referred to in such a list with his comital title, and in any case the list in question includes in another section a Lotharingian contingent in which he would have been placed if he had been sent to Italy.

Thietmar names " Konrad who had illegally married his own cousin, the widow of Duke Ernst " when recording that he was wounded when Gerhard Graf von Metz his maternal uncle met Godefroi II Duke of Lower Lotharingia for " a judicial duel " 27 Aug [].

Crowned King of Italy at Milan in Mar Founded Kloster Limburg The Annales Spirenses record his burial at Speyer []. The Annalista Saxo names her three husbands, although the order of her first and second marriages is interchanged which appears impossible chronologically [].

She was crowned Queen of Germany at Köln 21 Sep Crowned empress, with her husband, at Rome 26 Mar Herimannus records her death at Goslar [].

The necrology of Merseburg records the death "24 Sep" of " Beatrix filia Cuonradi imperatoris " []. Her absence from the list of deceased relatives in the donation of " Chuonradus…Romanorum imperator augustus " to the church of Worms by charter dated 30 Jan suggests that Mathilde died after that date, while her absence from the list of the children of Emperor Konrad named in the same charter is explainable on the basis of her youth [].

Wipo names " Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris " when recording his first marriage in []. Duke of Swabia He was installed as king of Burgundy by his father in Autumn Regent of the duchy of Carinthia He resumed possession of the duchy of Bavaria from to At the same time Emperor Heinrich received the rank of patricius as a hereditary title, which carried the right to cast the first vote in a papal election, the power of which was reflected in the election of six German popes during the following decade [].

A deeply religious man, Emperor Heinrich renewed the ban on clerics taking oaths in court proceedings, refused to follow the practice of bestowing church offices for payment, and laid great emphasis on the sacral character of kingship [].

He founded the convent of St Simon and Jude at Goslar before He died of a fever. Adam of Bremen records that the daughter of King Knud married " imperator filio suo " [].

Her parentage is given by Orderic Vitalis, who also refers to her marriage []. Wipo names " Chnutonis regis Anglorum filiam, nomine Chunehildem " as wife of " Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris " when recording their marriage in [].

Herimannus names " Chunihildem, Cnutonis Danorum et Anglorum regis filiam " when recording her marriage to " Heinricus rex, filius imperatoris " in [].

The Chronicle of Alberic de Trois-Fontaines records that " uxor imperatoris Henrici Gunhildis imperatrix de Anglia " was accused of adultery, that she was defended in trial by combat, but that after her champion's victory she disdained the success and became a nun [].

William of Malmesbury also recounts that she was accused of adultery and retired to a convent []. Herimannus names her " Agnetam, Willehelmi Pictaviensis filiam " when recording her marriage [].

She was crowned empress with her husband at Rome 25 Dec She was regent during the minority of her son from Her husband's old adviser, Gerhard von Eichstätt by then Pope Victor II, who was in Germany when her husband died, remained in Germany until Spring as the chief adviser of Agnes and ensured a smooth transition of power [].

Agnes resigned as regent and went to Rome []. Wipo records that " regina Chunehildis " left a single daughter unnamed specifying that she later became a nun [].

The source which names her has not yet been identified. Abbess of Quedlinburg and Gandersheim At the end of the passage dealing with , Herimannus records the birth of a daughter to " Agnes regina " but does not name her [].

This presumably refers to Mathilde, probably her parents' oldest child given the date of her marriage. The Annales of Berthold record the marriage in of " Roudolfus Alemmanorum dux " and " Mahthildam, Heinrici regis sororem " and the death in of " Mahthilt soror regis " [].

The Annales Sancti Blasii record the marriage in of " Roudolfus dux " and " Mahtildam regis sororem " and the death of " Mahtilt uxor Roudolfi ducis " in [].

He was one of the nobles opposed to his brother-in-law King Heinrich IV. He was elected anti-king of Germany at Forcheim in Feb by the German nobility who were affronted by Pope Gregory VI's withdrawal of the order of excommunication against King Heinrich [].

The Pope remained neutral at the time but after repeating his excommunication order against King Heinrich in , he declared support for Rudolf as anti-king [].

The Annalista Saxo names " sorore regis Adelheida Quidelingeburgensi abbatissa " []. Abbess of Gandersheim Abbess of Quedlinburg The Annalista Saxo records the birth of " Heinrico inperatori filius quartus Heinricus " [].

The Annales Necrologici Fuldenses record the death in of " Cuonrad infans filius imperatoris " []. The Annales Yburgenses refer to the wife of " Ungariam…[rex] Salemannum " as " regis Heinrici sororem " but do not name her [].

Having left Hungary for Germany after her husband was deposed in , she was living in Regensburg when her husband attempted to reclaim the Hungarian throne.

She refused to receive him when he returned in The Chronicon Polono-Silesiacum specifies her name " Iudite " []. This could only refer to the future Philippe I King of France as it is unlikely that the emperor's daughter would have been betrothed to his younger brother.

This betrothal is not corroborated in the western European primary sources so far consulted. Emperor Heinrich had one [possible illegitimate] child by [an unknown mistress]: Her birth date range is estimated on the assumption that the age of her son Johann is correct when he died.

Assuming that her paternity is correctly stated, her absence from other contemporary records and her comparatively obscure marriage suggest that she was illegitimate.

Emperor Heinrich IV, who would have been Azela's half-brother if the relationship is correctly stated here, made numerous donations to Speyer cathedral between and , during the bishopric of Azela's son Johann.

However, in none of these is any blood relationship with the bishop directly mentioned by using words such as " consanguineus " or " propinquus ".

Nevertheless, in the emperor's donation dated 21 Sep he calls Bishop Johann " fidele servicium carissimi ", a phrase which appears more intimate than those usually seen in imperial donations to bishoprics and which could be consistent with family relationship [].

His father crowned him associate king of Germany at Aachen 17 Jul King Heinrich faced many difficulties with his nobility.

Already at the time of last year's research, Alves was being investigated by the Brazilian authorities. However, he is still treating patients today.

The ARD team had little problem booking an appointment at his clinic. It remains unclear why he is still allowed to practice. Inquiries about the case with the public prosecutor's office yielded no response.

According to official statements, the investigation is being continued by another judicial body. Further queries throw into doubt whether Alves will ever be punished for his wrongdoing.

In no other country are there more doping cases in football than in Brazil. Seventeen official cases in a single year. A regrettable record for Brazil who lead the way in this bracket ahead of Italy, Iran and Malta.

The national team is not immune to such doping cases. One of the players on the current World Cup squad recently served his own doping ban.

In , midfielder Fred tested positive for the banned drug hydrochlorothiazide. This substance, a diuretic that aids water loss, keeps appearing in doping tests.

Diuretics are prohibited, because they can mask the use of anabolic steroids by flushing out the substances from the body more quickly. The sanctions imposed on athletes who test positive for diuretics is significantly less than for those found using steroids.

In Brazil, one doping defense beats them all: A type of pharmacy unknown to Europe. Supplements are individually prepared on-site for every patient.

They argue to have unknowingly ingested banned substances by way of contaminated supplements.

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